SC Issues Directions to States for Proper Implementation of Juvenile Justice Act

February 13, 2018

Case name: Sampurna Behura v. Union of India & Ors.

Date of Judgment: February 09, 2018

In a recent case, the Two-Judge Bench of the Supreme Court extensively deliberated on the status of Child care institutions in India under the The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000  and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015. The Bench in the case took strong note of virtual non-implementation or tardy implementation of laws beneficial to children, particularly, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 and Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015.

The Supreme expressed its concern in the case by stating that:

What can a citizen do if the State pays no attention to his or her fundamental or human or statutory right, nor takes serious interest in fulfilling its constitutional or statutory obligations? What if that citizen is a voiceless child or someone whose voice cannot be heard over the din of governance – for example, physically or mentally challenged persons, senior citizens, and other disadvantaged sections of society such as scheduled castes, tribals and several others? The aggrieved would perhaps approach the judiciary for the enforcement of a human right. Should the judiciary take corrective steps and be accused of ‘judicial activism’ or overreach – or should the cynics and skeptics have their day resulting in the grievance of the voiceless and the disadvantaged remaining unheard and the fundamental and human rights lying unaddressed?

The Supreme Court in the case hearing a PIL instituted by one Sampurna Behura, wherein the Petitioner drew attention to several Articles of the Constitution which impose primary responsibility on the State to ensure that the needs of children are met and their basic human rights are protected. The PIL highlighted the failure of State Governments to implement various provisions of the Act of 2000 including, inter alia, the establishment of Child Welfare Committees, Juvenile Justice Boards, Special Juvenile Police Units, establishment of appropriate Homes for children in need of care and protection. The Petitioner in the case prayed that the Chief Secretaries and the Directors General of Police and Superintendents of Police of all the States should forthwith implement the Act of 2000 in its true spirit.

The Supreme Court Bench in view of the concerns expressed and the need to invigorate the juvenile justice system in the country, issued the following directions:

  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) in the Government of India and the State Governments should ensure that all positions in the NCPCR (National Commission for Protection of Child Rights) and the SCPRs (State Commission for Protection of Child Rights) are filled up well in time and adequate staff is provided to these statutory bodies so that they can function effectively and meaningfully for the benefit of the children.
  • The NCPCR and the SCPCRs  should take their duties, functions and responsibilities with great earnestness keeping in mind the faith reposed in them by Parliament. A position in these statutory institutions is not a sinecure. These bodies have a very significant and proactive role to play in improving the lives of children across the country.
  • The State level Child Protection Societies and the District level Child Protection Units have an enormous responsibility in ensuring that the JJ Act is effectively implemented and Child Care Institutions are managed and maintained in a manner that is conducive to the well-being of children in all respects including nutrition, education, medical benefits, skill development and general living conditions. These two bodies would be well advised to take the assistance of NGOs and civil society to ensure that the JJ Act serves the purpose for which it is enacted by Parliament.
  • The State Governments must ensure that all positions in the JJBs and CWCs are filled up expeditiously and in accordance with the Model Rules or the Rules framed by the State Government. Any delay in filling up the positions might adversely impact on children and this should be avoided.
  • The JJBs (Juvenile Justice Board) and CWCs (Child Welfare Committees) must appreciate that it is necessary to have sittings on a regular basis so that a minimal number of inquiries are pending at any given point of time and justice is given to all juveniles in conflict with law and social justice to children in need of care and protection. This is a constitutional obligation.
  • The NCPCR and the SCPCRs must carry out time-bound studies on various issues, as deemed appropriate, under the JJ Act. Based on these studies, the State Governments and the Union Territories must take remedial steps.
  • In particular the NCPCR and the SCPCRs must carry out a study for estimating the number of Probation Officers required for the effective implementation of the JJ Act. Based on this study, the State Government must appoint the necessary number of Probation Officers. It must be emphasised that the role of a Probation Officer is critical for the rehabilitation and social reintegration of a juvenile in conflict with law and due importance must be given to their duties as postulated in the Model Rules and Rules, if any, framed by the State Governments and the Union Territories.
  • The MWCD must continue to make creative use of information and communication technology not only for the purpose of collecting data and information but also for other issues connected with the JJ Act such as having a database of missing children, trafficked children and for follow up of adoption cases etc. With the utilization of technology to the fullest extent, administrative efficiency will improve considerably, which in turn will have a positive impact on the lives of children.
  • It is important for the police to appreciate their role as the first responder on issues pertaining to offences allegedly committed by children as well as offences committed against children. There is therefore a need to set up meaningful Special Juvenile Police Units and appoint Child Welfare Police Officers in terms of the JJ Act at the earliest and not only on paper. In this context, it is necessary to clearly identify the duties and responsibilities of such Units and Officers and wherever necessary, guidance from the available expertise, either the National Police Academy or the Bureau of Police Research and Development or NGOs must be taken for the benefit of children.
  • The National Police Academy and State Police Academies must consider including child rights as a part of their curriculum on a regular basis and not as an isolated or sporadic event.
  • The management of Child Care Institutions is extremely important and State Governments and Union Territories would be well advised to ensure that all such institutions are registered so that children can live a dignified life in these Institutions and issues of missing children and trafficking are also addressed.
  • State Governments and Union Territories would be well advised to appoint eminent persons from civil society as Visitors to monitor and supervise the Child Care Institutions in all the districts. This will ensure that the management and maintenance of these Institutions are addressed. We have no doubt that the State Legal Service Authorities and the District Legal Service Authorities will extend full assistance and cooperation to the government authorities in this venture as well as to the Visitors.
  • The JJ Fund is a bit of an embarrassment with an absence of an effective response from the State Governments and the Union Territories. If financial resources are not made available for the welfare of the children we shudder to think what could be better utilization of the funds.
  • We request NALSA (National Legal Services Authority) to carry forward the exercise and complete a Report preferably before 30th April, 2018 to assist all the policy making and decision taking authorities to plan out their affairs.
  • The importance of training cannot be over-emphasized. It is vital for understanding and appreciating child rights and for the effective implementation of the JJ Act. All authorities such as JJBs and CWCs, Probation Officers, members of the Child Protection Societies and District Child Protection Units, Special Juvenile Police Units, Child Welfare Police Officers and managerial staff of Child Care Institutions must be sensitized and given adequate training relating to their position. A very positive step has been taken in this regard by NALSA and we expect the NCPCR with the assistance of the SCPCRs to carry forward this initiative so that there is meaningful implementation of the JJ Act.
  • Since the involvement of the State Governments and the Union Territories is critical to child rights and the effective implementation of the JJ Act, it would be appropriate if each High Court and the Juvenile Justice Committee of each High Court continues its proactive role in the welfare of children in their State. To make the involvement and process more meaningful, we request the Chief Justice of every High Court to register proceedings on its own motion for the effective implementation of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 so that road-blocks if any, encountered by statutory authorities and the Juvenile Justice Committee of the High Court are meaningfully addressed after hearing the concerned governmental authorities.
  • Finally, we request and urge the Chief Justice of each High Court to seriously consider establishing child friendly courts and vulnerable witness courts in each district. Inquiries under the JJ Act and trials under other statutes such as the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, trials for sexual offences under Indian Penal Code  and other similar laws require to be conducted with a high degree of sensitivity, care and empathy for the victim.
  • It is often said that the experience in our courts of a juvenile accused of an offence or the victim of a sexual offence is traumatic. We need to have some compassion towards them – even juveniles in conflict with law, since they are entitled to the presumption of innocence – and establishing child friendly courts and vulnerable witness courts is perhaps one manner in which the justice delivery system can respond to ease their pain and suffering. Another advantage of such child friendly courts and vulnerable witness courts is that they can be used for trials in which adult women are victims of sexual offences since they too are often traumatized by the not so friendly setting and environment in our courts.

The entire case can be accessed here.


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Shilpi Sharan

- Shilpi Sharan is the Editor at - an Advocate with extensive knowledge in myriad fields of Law. She has a flair of writing and has legal publications in national and international law magazines to her credit. She focuses on legal research and aims at raising public awareness of laws in India.