Income Tax Act, 1961

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ABBREVIATIONS

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS ACT ARE -

Cl. Clause

Cls. Clauses

Expl/Expln. Explanation

Ins. Inserted

Misc. Miscellaneous

r. rule

rr. rules

Sch. Schedule

S./s. Section

Ss./ss. Sections

Subs. Substituted

w.e.f. With effect from

Abbreviations used Substitution of new authorities by

Direct Tax Laws (Amendment) Act, 1987,

s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-4-1988) / Direct Tax

Laws (Amendment) Act, 1989, s. 54

(w.e.f. 1-4-1988).

1. SHORT TITLE, EXTENT AND COMMENCEMENT.

[43 OF 1961]

An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to income-tax and super-tax.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twelfth Year of the Republic of India as follows :-

 (1) This Act may be called the Income-tax Act, 1961.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, it shall come into force on the

1st day of April, 1962.

Section 2 DEFINITIONS.

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, - (1) “Advance tax” means the advance tax payable in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XVII-C;

 (1A) “Agricultural income” means - (a) any rent or revenue derived from land which is situated in India and is used for agricultural purposes;

(b) Any income derived from such land by - (i) Agriculture; or

(ii) The performance by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind of any process ordinarily employed by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind to render the produce raised or received by him fit to be taken to market; or

(iii) The sale by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind of the produce raised or received by him, in respect of which no process has been performed other than a process of the nature described in paragraph (ii) of this sub-clause;

(c) Any income derived from any building owned and occupied by the receiver of the rent or revenue of any such land, or occupied by the cultivator or the receiver of rent-in-kind, of any land with respect to which, or the produce of which, any process mentioned in paragraphs (ii) and (iii) of sub-clause (b) is carried on :

Provided that – (i) The building is on or in the immediate vicinity of the land, and is a building which the receiver of the rent or revenue or the cultivator, or the receiver of rent-in-kind, by reason of his connection with the land, requires as a dwelling house, or as a store-house, or other out-building, and

(ii) The land is either assessed to land revenue in India or is subject to a local rate assessed and collected by officers of the Government as such or where the land is not so assessed to land revenue or subject to a local rate, it is not situated - (A) In any area which is comprised within the jurisdiction of a municipality (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee, town committee or by any other name) or a cantonment board and which has a population of not less than ten thousand according to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year; or

(B) In any area within such distance, not being more than eight kilometres, from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in item (A), as the Central Government may, having regard to the extent of, and scope for, urbanisation of that area and other relevant considerations, specify in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette.

Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that revenue derived from land shall not include and shall be deemed never to have included any income arising from the transfer of any land referred to in item (a) or item (b) of sub-clause (iii) of clause (14) of this section;

(1B) “Amalgamation”, in relation to companies, means the merger of one or more companies with another company or the merger of two or more companies to form one company (the company or companies which so merge being referred to as the amalgamating company or companies and the company with which they merge or which is formed as a result of the merger, as the amalgamated company) in such a manner that - (i) all the property of the amalgamating company or companies immediately before the amalgamation becomes the property of the amalgamated company by virtue of the amalgamation;

(ii) All the liabilities of the amalgamating company or companies immediately before the amalgamation become the liabilities of the amalgamated company by virtue of the amalgamation;

(iii) Shareholders holding not less than nine-tenths in value of the shares in the amalgamating company or companies (other than shares already held therein immediately before the amalgamation by, or by a nominee for, the amalgamated company or its subsidiary) become shareholders of the amalgamated company by virtue of the amalgamation, otherwise than as a result of the acquisition of the property of one company by another company pursuant to the purchase of such property by the other company or as a result of the distribution of such property to the other company after the winding up of the first mentioned company;

(2) “Annual value”, in relation to any property, means its annual value as determined under section 23;

(4) “Appellate Tribunal” means the Appellate Tribunal constituted under section 252;

 (5) “Approved gratuity fund” means a gratuity fund which has been and continues to be approved by the Chief Commissioner or Commissioner in accordance with the rules contained in Part C of the Fourth Schedule;

(6) “Approved superannuation fund” means a superannuation fund or any part of a superannuation fund which has been and continues to be approved by the Chief Commissioner or Commissioner in accordance with the rules contained in Part B of the Fourth Schedule;

 (7) “Assessee” means a person by whom any tax or any other sum of money is payable under this Act, and includes - (a) Every person in respect of whom any proceeding under this Act has been taken for the assessment of his income or of the income of any other person in respect of which he is assessable, or of the loss sustained by him or by such other person, or the amount of refund due to him or to such other person;

 (b) Every person who is deemed to be an assessee under any provision of this Act;

 (c) Every person who is deemed to be an assessee in default under any provision of this Act;

 (7A) “Assessing Officer” means the Assistant Commissioner or Deputy Commissioner or Assistant Director or Deputy Director or the Income-tax Officer who is vested with the relevant jurisdiction by virtue of directions or orders issued under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 120 or any other provision of this Act, and the Joint Commissioner or Joint Director who is directed under clause (b) of sub-section (4) of that section to exercise or perform all or any of the powers and functions conferred on, or assigned to, an Assessing Officer under this Act;

(8) “Assessment” includes reassessment;

(9) “Assessment year” means the period of twelve months commencing on the 1st day of April every year;

 (9A) “Assistant Commissioner” means a person appointed to be an Assistant Commissioner of Income-tax or a Deputy Commissioner of Income-tax” under sub-section (1) of section 117;

(10) “Average rate of income-tax” means the rate arrived at by dividing the amount of income-tax calculated on the total income, by such total income;

(11) “Block of assets” means a group of assets falling within a class of assets comprising – (a) Tangible assets, being buildings, machinery, plant or furniture;

(b) Intangible assets, being know-how, patents, copyrights, trade-marks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature, in respect of which the same percentage of depreciation is prescribed;

(12) “Board” means the Central Board of Direct Taxes constituted under the Central Boards of Revenue Act, 1963 (54 of 1963);

(13) “Business” includes any trade, commerce or manufacture or any adventure or concern in the nature of trade, commerce or manufacture;

 (14) “Capital asset” means property of any kind held by an assessee, whether or not connected with his business or profession, but does not include -

(i) Any stock-in-trade, consumable stores or raw materials held for the purposes of his business or profession;

 (ii) Personal effects, that is to say, movable property (including wearing apparel and furniture, but excluding jewellery) held for personal use by the assessee or any member of his family dependent on him.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, “Jewellery” includes - (a) Ornaments made of gold, silver, platinum or any other precious metal or any alloy containing one or more of such precious metals, whether or not containing any precious or semi-precious stone, and whether or not worked or sewn into any wearing apparel;

(b) Precious or semi-precious stones, whether or not set in any furniture, utensil or other article or worked or sewn into any wearing apparel;

(iii) Agricultural land in India, not being land situate -

(a) In any area which is comprised within the jurisdiction of a municipality (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee, town committee, or by any other name) or a cantonment board and which has a population of not less than ten thousand according to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published before the 1st day of the previous year; or

 (b) In any area within such distance, not being more than eight kilometres from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in item (a), as the Central Government may, having regard to the extent of, and scope for, urbanisation of that area and other relevant considerations, specify 20 in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette;

(iv) 6 1/2 per cent Gold Bonds, 1977, 22 or 7 per cent Gold Bonds, 1980, National Defence Gold Bonds, 1980, issued by the Central Government;

(v) Special Bearer Bonds, 1991, issued by the Central Government;

(vi) Gold Deposit Bonds issued under the Gold Deposit Scheme, 1999 notified by the Central Government

 (15) “Charitable purpose” includes relief of the poor, education, medical relief, and the advancement of any other object of general public utility

(15A) “Chief Commissioner” means a person appointed to be a Chief Commissioner of Income-tax under sub-section (1) of section 117;

(15B) “Child”, in relation to an individual includes a step child and an adopted child of that individual;

(16) “Commissioner” means a person appointed to be a Commissioner of Income-tax under sub-section (1) of section 117

 (16A) “Commissioner (Appeals)” means a person appointed to be a Commissioner of Income-tax (Appeals) under sub-section (1) of section 117;

 (17) “Company” means - (i) Any Indian company, or

(ii) Any body corporate incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India, or

 (iii) Any institution, association or body which is or was assessable or was assessed as a company for any assessment year under the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), or which is or was assessable or was assessed under this Act as a company for any assessment year commencing on or before the 1st day of April, 1970, or

 (iv) Any institution, association or body, whether incorporated or not and whether Indian or non-Indian, which is declared by general or special order of the Board to be a company :

Provided that such institution, association or body shall be deemed to be a company only for such assessment year or assessment years (whether commencing before the 1st day of April, 1971 or on or after that date) as may be specified in the declaration;

 (18) “Company in which the public are substantially interested” – a company is said to be a company in which the public are substantially interested -

 (a) If it is a company owned by the Government or the Reserve Bank of India or in which not less than forty per cent of the shares are held (whether singly or taken together) by the Government or the Reserve Bank of India or a corporation owned by that bank;

(aa) If it is a company which is registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

 (ab) If it is a company having no share capital and if, having regard to its objects, the nature and composition of its membership and other relevant considerations, it is declared by order of the Board to be a company in which the public are substantially interested :

Provided that such company shall be deemed to be a company in which the public are substantially interested only for such assessment year or assessment years (whether commencing before the 1st day of April, 1971, or on or after that date) as may be specified in the declaration;

(ac) If it is a mutual benefit finance company, that is to say, a company which carries on, as its principal business, the business of acceptance of deposits from its members and which is declared by the Central Government under section 620A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), to be a Nidhi or Mutual Benefit Society;

 (ad) If it is a company, wherein shares (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a further right to participate in profits) carrying not less than fifty per cent of the voting power have been allotted unconditionally to, or acquired unconditionally by, and were throughout the relevant previous year beneficially held by, one or more co-operative societies;

(b) If it is a company which is not a 39 private company as defined in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), and the conditions specified either in item (A) or in item (B) are fulfilled, namely :-

(A) Shares in the company (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a further right to participate in profits) were, as on the last day of the relevant previous year, listed in a recognised stock exchange in India in accordance with the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956), and any rules made thereunder;

(B) Shares in the company (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a further right to participate in profits) carrying not less than fifty per cent of the voting power have been allotted unconditionally to, or acquired unconditionally by, and were throughout the relevant previous year beneficially held by -

 (a) The Government, or

(b) A corporation established by a Central, State or Provincial Act, or

(c) Any company to which this clause applies or any subsidiary company of such company if the whole of the share capital of such subsidiary company has been held by the parent company or by its nominees throughout the previous year.

 Explanation : In its application to an Indian company whose business consists mainly in the construction of ships or in the manufacture or processing of goods or in mining or in the generation or distribution of electricity or any other form of power, item (B) shall have effect as if for the words “not less than fifty per cent”, the words “not less than forty per cent” had been substituted;

(19) “Co-operative society” means a co-operative society registered under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1912 (2 of 1912), or under any other law for the time being in force in any State for the registration of co-operative societies;

(19A) “Deputy Commissioner” means a person appointed to be a Deputy Commissioner of Income-tax under sub-section (1) of section 117;

 (19AA) “Demerger”, in relation to companies, means the transfer, pursuant to a scheme of arrangement under sections 391 to 394 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), by a demerged company of its one or more undertakings to any resulting company in such a manner that - (i) All the property of the undertaking, being transferred by the demerged company, immediately before the demerger, becomes the property of the resulting company by virtue of the demerger;

 (ii) All the liabilities relatable to the undertaking, being transferred by the demerged company, immediately before the demerger, become the liabilities of the resulting company by virtue of the demerger;

(iii) The property and the liabilities of the undertaking or undertakings being transferred by the demerged company are transferred at values appearing in its books of account immediately before the demerger;

(iv) The resulting company issues, in consideration of the demerger, its shares to the shareholders of the demerged company on a proportionate basis;

 (v) The shareholders holding not less than three-fourths in value of the shares in the demerged company (other than shares already held therein immediately before the demerger, or by a nominee for, the resulting company or, its subsidiary) become shareholders of the resulting company or companies by virtue of the demerger, otherwise than as a result of the acquisition of the property or assets of the demerged company or any undertaking thereof by the resulting company;

 (vi) The transfer of the undertaking is on a going concern basis;

(vii) The demerger is in accordance with the conditions, if any, notified under sub-section (5) of section 72A by the Central Government in this behalf.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of this clause, “undertaking” shall include any part of an undertaking, or a unit or division of an undertaking or a business activity taken as a whole, but does not include individual assets or liabilities or any combination thereof not constituting a business activity.

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause, the liabilities referred to in sub-clause (ii), shall include - (a) The liabilities which arise out of the activities or operations of the undertaking;

(b) The specific loans or borrowings (including debentures) raised, incurred and utilised solely for the activities or operations of the undertaking; and

 (c) In cases, other than those referred to in clause (a) or clause (b), so much of the amounts of general or multipurpose borrowings, if any, of the demerged company as stand in the same proportion which the value of the assets transferred in a demerger bears to the total value of the assets of such demerged company immediately before the demerger.

Section 3 “PREVIOUS YEAR” DEFINED.

(1) Save as otherwise provided in this section, “previous year” for the purposes of this Act, means the financial year immediately preceding the assessment year :

Provided that, in the case of a business or profession newly set up, or a source of income newly coming into existence, in the said financial year, the previous year shall be the period beginning with the date of setting up of the business or profession or, as the case may be, the date on which the source of income newly comes into existence and ending with the said financial year.

 (2)”Previous year”, in relation to the assessment year, commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989, means the period which begins with the date immediately following the last day of the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988 and ends on the 31st day of March, 1989:

Provided that where the assessee has adopted more than one period as the “previous year” in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988 for different sources of his income, the previous year in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989 shall be reckoned separately in the manner aforesaid in respect of each such source of income, and the longer or the longest of the periods so reckoned shall be the previous year for the said assessment year :

Provided further that in the case of a business or profession newly set up, or a source of income newly coming into existence on or after the 1st day of April, 1987 but before the 1st day of April, 1988 and where the accounts in relation to such business or profession or source of income have not been made up to the 31st day of March, 1988, the “Previous year” in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989, shall be the period beginning with the date of setting up of the business or profession or, as the case may be, the date on which the source of income newly comes into existence and ending on the 31st day of March, 1989 :

Provided also that where the assessee has adopted one or more periods as the “previous year” in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, for any source or sources of his income, in addition to the business or profession or source of income referred to in the second proviso, the previous year in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989, shall be reckoned separately in the manner aforesaid in respect of each such source of income, and the longer or the longest of the periods so reckoned shall be the previous year in relation to the said assessment year. 123

(3) Where the previous year in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989, referred to in sub-section (2) exceeds a period of twelve months, the provisions of this Act shall apply subject to the modifications specified in the rules in the Tenth Schedule.

Section 4 CHARGE OF INCOME-TAX.

(1) Where any Central Act enacts that income-tax shall be charged for any assessment year at any rate or rates, income-tax at that rate or those rates shall be charged for that year in accordance with, and subject to the provisions (including provisions for the levy of additional income-tax) of, this Act in respect of the total income of the previous year of every person :

Provided that where by virtue of any provision of this Act income-tax is to be charged in respect of the income of a period other than the previous year, income-tax shall be charged accordingly.

(2) In respect of income chargeable under sub-section (1), income-tax shall be deducted at the source or paid in advance, where it is so deductible or payable under any provision of this Act.

Section 5 SCOPE OF TOTAL INCOME.

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the total income of any previous year of a person who is a resident includes all income from whatever source derived which – (a) Is received or is deemed to be received in India in such year by or on behalf of such person; or

(b) Accrues or arises or is deemed to accrue or arise to him in India during such year; or

 (c) Accrues or arises to him outside India during such year :

Provided that, in the case of a person not ordinarily resident in India within the meaning of sub-section (6) 127a of section 6, the income which accrues or arises to him outside India shall not be so included unless it is derived from a business controlled in or a profession set up in India.

 (2) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the total income of any previous year of a person who is a non-resident includes all income from whatever source derived which – (a) Is received or is deemed to be received in India in such year by or on behalf of such person; or

 (b) Accrues or arises or is deemed to accrue or arise to him in India during such year.

 Explanation 1 : Income accruing or arising outside India shall not be deemed to be received in India within the meaning of this section by reason only of the fact that it is taken into account in a balance sheet prepared in India.

Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that income which has been included in the total income of a person on the basis that it has accrued or arisen or is deemed to have accrued or arisen to him shall not again be so included on the basis that it is received or deemed to be received by him in India.

Section 5A . APPORTIONMENT OF INCOME BETWEEN SPOUSES GOVERNED BY PORTUGUESE CIVIL CODE.

 (1) Where the husband and wife are governed by the system of community of property (known under the Portuguese Civil Code of 1860 as “COMMUNIAO DOS BENS”) in force in the State of Goa and in the Union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, the income of the husband and of the wife under any head of income shall not be assessed as that of such community of property (whether treated as an association of persons or a body of individuals), but such income of the husband and of the wife under each head of income (other than under the head “Salaries”) shall be apportioned equally between the husband and the wife and the income so apportioned shall be included separately in the total income of the husband and of the wife respectively, and the remaining provisions of this Act shall apply accordingly.

 (2) Where the husband or, as the case may be, the wife governed by the aforesaid system of community of property has any income under the head “Salaries”, such income shall be included in the total income of the spouse who has actually earned it.

Section 6 RESIDENCE IN INDIA.

For the purposes of this Act, - (1) An individual is said to be resident in India in any previous year, if he - (a) Is in India in that year for a period or periods amounting in all to one hundred and eighty-two days or more; or

(c) Having within the four years preceding that year been in India for a period or periods amounting in all to three hundred and sixty-five days or more, is in India for a period or periods amounting in all to sixty days or more in that year.

Explanation : In the case of an individual, - (a) Being a citizen of India, who leaves India in any previous year as a member of the crew of an Indian ship as defined in clause (18) of section 3 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958, (44 of 1958) or for the purposes of employment outside India, the provisions of sub-clause (c) shall apply in relation to that year as if for the words “sixty days”, occurring therein, the words “one hundred and eighty-two days” had been substituted;

 (b) Being a citizen of India, or a person of Indian origin within the meaning of Explanation to clause (e) of section 115C, who, being outside India, comes on a visit to India in any previous year, the provisions of sub-clause (c) shall apply in relation to that year as if for the words “sixty days”, occurring therein, the words “one hundred eighty-two days” had been substituted.

(2) A Hindu undivided family, firm or other association of persons is said to be resident in India in any previous year in every case except where during that year the control and management of its affairs is situated wholly outside India.

(3) A company is said to be resident in India in any previous year, if - (i) It is an Indian company; or

 (ii) During that year, the control and management of its affairs is situated wholly in India.

 (4) Every other person is said to be resident in India in any previous year in every case, except where during that year the control and management of his affairs is situated wholly outside India.

 (5) If a person is resident in India in a previous year relevant to an assessment year in respect of any source of income, he shall be deemed to be resident in India in the previous year relevant to the assessment year in respect of each of his other sources of income.

(6) A person is said to be “not ordinarily resident” in India in any previous year if such person is - (a) An individual who has not been resident in India in nine out of the ten previous years preceding that year, or has not during the seven previous years preceding that year been in India for a period of, or periods amounting in all to, seven hundred and thirty days or more, or

(b) A Hindu undivided family whose manager has not been resident in India in nine out of the ten previous years preceding that year, or has not during the seven previous years preceding that year been in India for a period of, or periods amounting in all to, seven hundred and thirty days or more.

Section 7. INCOME DEEMED TO BE RECEIVED.

The following incomes shall be deemed to be received in the previous year :- (i) The annual accretion in the previous year to the balance at the credit of an employee participating in a recognised provident fund, to the extent provided in rule 6 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule;

(ii) The transferred balance in a recognised provident fund, to the extent provided in sub-rule (4) of rule 11 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule.

Section 8 . DIVIDEND INCOME.

For the purposes of inclusion in the total income of an assessee, - (a) Any dividend declared by a company or distributed or paid by it within the meaning of sub-clause (a) or sub-clause (b) or sub-clause (c) or sub-clause (d) or sub-clause (e) of clause (22) of section 2 shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which it is so declared, distributed or paid, as the case may be;

 (b) Any interim dividend shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which the amount of such dividend is unconditionally made available by the company to the member who is entitled to it.

Section 9 .INCOME DEEMED TO ACCRUE OR ARISE IN INDIA.

(1) The following incomes shall be deemed to accrue or arise in India :- (i) All income accruing or arising, whether directly or indirectly, through or from any business connection in India, or through or from any property in India, or through or from any asset or source of income in India, or through the transfer of a capital asset situate in India;

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause - (a) In the case of a business of which all the operations are not carried out in India, the income of the business deemed under this clause to accrue or arise in India shall be only such part of the income as is reasonably attributable to the operations carried out in India;

(b) In the case of a non-resident, no income shall be deemed to accrue or arise in India to him through or from operations which are confined to the purchase of goods in India for the purpose of export;

(c) In the case of a non-resident, being a person engaged in the business of running a news agency or of publishing newspapers, magazines or journals, no income shall be deemed to accrue or arise in India to him through or from activities which are confined to the collection of news and views in India for transmission out of India;

 (d) In the case of a non-resident, being - (1) An individual who is not a citizen of India; or

(2) A firm which does not have any partner who is a citizen of India or who is resident in India; or

 (3) A company which does not have any shareholder who is a citizen of India or who is resident in India, no income shall be deemed to accrue or arise in India to such individual, firm or company through or from operations which are confined to the shooting of any cinematograph film in India;

 (ii) Income which falls under the head “Salaries”, if it is earned in India;

Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that income of the nature referred to in this clause payable for service rendered in India shall be regarded as income earned in India.

 (iii) Income chargeable under the head “Salaries” payable by the Government to a citizen of India for service outside India;

(iv) A dividend paid by an Indian company outside India;

(v) Income by way of interest payable by - (a) The Government; or

(b) A person who is a resident, except where the interest is payable in respect of any debt incurred or moneys borrowed and used, for the purposes of a business or profession carried on by such person outside India or for the purposes of making or earning any income from any source outside India; or

(c) A person who is a non-resident, where the interest is payable in respect of any debt incurred, or moneys borrowed and used, for the purposes of a business or profession carried on by such person in India;

 (vi) Income by way of royalty payable by - (a) The Government; or

(b) A person who is a resident, except where the royalty is payable in respect of any right, property or information used or services utilised for the purposes of a business or profession carried on by such person outside India or for the purposes of making or earning any income from any source outside India; or

 (c) A person who is a non-resident, where the royalty is payable in respect of any right, property or information used or services utilised for the purposes of a business or profession carried on by such person in India, or for the purposes of making or earning any income from any source in India :

Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in relation to so much of the income by way of royalty as consists of lump sum consideration for the transfer outside India of, or the imparting of information outside India in respect of, any data, documentation, drawing or specification relating to any patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property, if such income is payable in pursuance of an agreement made before the 1st day of April, 1976, and the agreement is approved by the Central Government :

Provided further that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in relation to so much of the income by way of royalty as consists of lump sum payment made by a person, who is a resident, for the transfer of all or any rights (including the granting of a licence) in respect of computer software supplied by a non-resident manufacturer along with a computer or computer-based equipment under any scheme approved under the Policy on Computer Software Export, Software Development and Training, 1986 of the Government of India.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of the first proviso, an agreement made on or after the 1st day of April, 1976, shall be deemed to have been made before that date if the agreement is made in accordance with proposals approved by the Central Government before that date; so, however, that, where the recipient of the income by way of royalty is a foreign company, the agreement shall not be deemed to have been made before that date unless, before the expiry of the time allowed under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 139 (whether fixed originally or on extension) for furnishing the return of income for the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1977, or the assessment year in respect of which such income first becomes chargeable to tax under this Act, whichever assessment year is later, the company exercises an option by furnishing a declaration in writing to the Assessing Officer (such option being final for that assessment year and for every subsequent assessment year) that the agreement may be regarded as an agreement made before the 1st day of April, 1976.

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause, “royalty” means consideration (including any lump sum consideration but excluding any consideration which would be the income of the recipient chargeable under the head “Capital gains”) for - (i) The transfer of all or any rights (including the granting of a licence) in respect of a patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property;

(ii) The imparting of any information concerning the working of or the use of, a patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property;

(iii) The use of any patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property;

 (iv) The imparting of any information concerning technical, industrial, commercial or scientific knowledge, experience or skill;

 (v) The transfer of all or any rights (including the granting of a licence) in respect of any copyright, literary, artistic or scientific work including films or video tapes for use in connection with television or tapes for use in connection with radio broadcasting, but not including consideration for the sale, distribution or exhibition of cinematographic films; or

 (vi) The rendering of any services in connection with the activities referred to in sub-clauses (i) to (v);

Explanation 3 : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “computer software” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (b) of the Explanation to section 80HHE;

 (vii) Income by way of fees for technical services payable by - (a) The Government; or

 (b) A person who is a resident, except where the fees are payable in respect of services utilised in a business or profession carried on by such person outside India or for the purposes of making or earning any income from any source outside India; or

 (c) A person who is a non-resident, where the fees are payable in respect of services utilised in a business or profession carried on by such person in India or for thepurposes of making or earning any income from any source in India :

Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in relation to any income by way of fees for technical services payable in pursuance of an agreement made before the 1st day of April, 1976, and approved by the Central Government.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of the foregoing proviso, an agreement made on or after the 1st day of April, 1976, shall be deemed to have been made before that date if the agreement is made in accordance with proposals approvedby the Central Government before that date.

 Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause, “fees for technical services” means any consideration (including any lump sum consideration) for the rendering of any managerial, technical or consultancy services (including the provision of services of technical or other personnel) but does not include consideration for any construction, assembly, mining or like project undertaken by the recipient or consideration which would be income of the recipient chargeable under the head “Salaries”.

 (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), any pension payable outside India to a person residing permanently outside India shall not be deemed to accrue or arise in India, if the pension is payable to a person referred to in article 314 of the Constitution or to a person who, having been appointed before 15th day of August, 1947, to be a Judge of the Federal Court or of a High Court within the meaning of the Government of India Act, 1935, continues to serve on or after the commencement of the Constitution as a Judge in India.

Section 10 . INCOMES NOT INCLUDED IN TOTAL INCOME.

In computing the total income of a previous year of any person, any income falling within any of the following clauses shall not be included – (1) Agricultural income;

 (2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 64, any sum received by an individual as a member of a Hindu undivided family, where such sum has been paid out of the income of the family, or, in the case of any impartible estate, where such sum has been paid out of the income of the estate belonging to the family;

(2A) In the case of a person being a partner of a firm which is separately assessed as such, his share in the total income of the firm.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the share of a partner in the total income of a firm separately assessed as such shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, be an amount which bears to the total income of the firm the same proportion as the amount of his share in the profits of the firm in accordance with the partnership deed bears to such profits;

(3) 145 any receipts which are of a casual and non-recurring nature, to the extent such receipts do not exceed five thousand rupees in the aggregate :

Provided that where such receipts relate to winnings from races including horse races, the provisions of this clause shall have effect as if for the words “five thousand rupees”, the words “two thousand five hundred rupees” had been substituted :

Provided further that this clause shall not apply to - (i) Capital gains chargeable under the provisions of section 45; or

 (ii) Receipts arising from business or the exercise of a profession or occupation; or

(iii) Receipts by way of addition to the remuneration of an employee;

(4)(i) In the case of a non-resident, any income by way of interest on such securities or bonds as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 148 in this behalf, including income by way of premium on the redemption of such bonds;

(ii) In the case of an individual, any income by way of interest on moneys standing to his credit in a Non-Resident (External) Account in any bank in India in accordance with the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973), and the rules made thereunder :

 Provided that such individual is a person resident outside India as defined in clause 149a (q) of section 2 of the said Act or is a person who has been permitted by the Reserve Bank of India to maintain the aforesaid Account;

(4B) In the case of an individual, being a citizen of India or a person of Indian origin, who is a non-resident, any income from interest on such savings certificates issued by the Central Government as that Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, 151 specify in this behalf :

Provided that the individual has subscribed to such certificates in convertible foreign exchange remitted from a country outside India in accordance with the provisions of Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973), and any rules made thereunder.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - (a) A person shall be deemed to be of Indian origin if he, or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents, was born in undivided India;

 (b) “Convertible foreign exchange” means foreign exchange which is for the time being treated by the Reserve Bank of India as convertible foreign exchange for the purposes of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973), and any rules made thereunder;

(5) In the case of an individual, the value of any travel concession or assistance received by, or due to, him, - (a) From his employer for himself and his family, in connection with his proceeding on leave to any place in India;

(b) From his employer or former employer for himself and his family, in connection with his proceeding to any place in India after retirement from service or after the termination of his service, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed 153 (including conditions as to number of journeys and the amount which shall be exempt per head) having regard to the travel concession or assistance granted to the employees of the Central Government :

Provided that the amount exempt under this clause shall in no case exceed the amount of expenses actually incurred for the purpose of such travel.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “family”, in relation to an individual, means – (i) The spouse and children of the individual; and

 (ii) The parents, brothers and sisters of the individual or any of them, wholly or mainly dependent on the individual;

 (5B) In the case of an individual who renders services as a technician in the employment (commencing from a date after the 31st day of March, 1993) of the Government or of a local authority or of any corporation set up under any special law or of any such institution or body established in India for carrying on scientific research as is approved for the purposes of this clause by the prescribed authority or in any business carried on in India and the individual was not resident in India in any of the four financial years immediately preceding the financial year in which he arrived in India and the tax on his income for such services chargeable under the head “Salaries” is paid to the Central Government by the employer (which tax, in the case of an employer, being a company, may be paid notwithstanding anything contained in section 200 of the Companies Act, 1956) (1 of 1956), the tax so paid by the employer for a period not exceeding forty-eight months commencing from the date of his arrival in India :

Provided that the Central Government may, if it considers it necessary or expedient in the public interest so to do, waive the condition relating to non-residence in India as specified in this clause in the case of any individual who is employed in India for designing, erection or commissioning of machinery or plant or supervising activities connected with such designing, erection or commissioning.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “technician” means a person having specialised knowledge and experience in - (i) Constructional or manufacturing operations, or in mining or in the generation of electricity or any other form of power, or

 (ii) Agriculture, animal husbandry, dairy farming, deep sea fishing or ship building, or

 (iii) Such other field as the Central Government may, having regard to availability of Indians having specialised knowledge and experience therein, the needs of the country and other relevant circumstances, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, who is employed in India in a capacity in which such specialised knowledge and experience are actually utilised;

 (6) In the case of an individual who is not a citizen of India, - (i) Subject to such conditions 156 as the Central Government may prescribe, passage moneys or the value of any free or concessional passage received by or due to such individual - (a) From his employer, for himself, his spouse and children, in connection with his proceeding on home leave out of India;

(b) From his employer or former employer for himself, his spouse and children, in connection with his proceeding to his home country out of India after retirement from service in India or after the termination of such service;

(ii) The remuneration received by him as an official, by whatever name called, of an embassy, high commission, legation, commission, consulate or the trade representation of a foreign State, or as a member of the staff of any of these officials, for service in such capacity :

 Provided that the remuneration received by him as a trade commissioner or other official representative in India of the Government of a foreign State (not holding office as such in an honorary capacity), or as a member of the staff of any of those officials, shall be exempt only if the remuneration of the corresponding officials or, as the case may be, members of the staff, if any, of the Government resident for similar purposes in the country concerned enjoys a similar exemption in that country :

Provided further that such members of the staff are subjects of the country represented and are not engaged in any business or profession or employment in India otherwise than as members of such staff;

 (vi) The remuneration received by him as an employee of a foreign enterprise for services rendered by him during his stay in India, provided the following conditions are fulfilled – (a) The foreign enterprise is not engaged in any trade or business in India;

 (b) His stay in India does not exceed in the aggregate a period of ninety days in such previous year; and

(c) Such remuneration is not liable to be deducted from the income of the employer chargeable under this Act;

(viii) Any income chargeable under the head “Salaries” received by or due to any such individual being a non-resident as remuneration for services rendered in connection with his employment on a foreign ship where his total stay in India does not exceed in the aggregate a period of ninety days in the previous year;

 (xi) The remuneration received by him as an employee of the Government of a foreign State during his stay in India in connection with his training in any establishment or office of, or in any undertaking owned by, - (i) The Government; or

(ii) Any company in which the entire paid-up share capital is held by the Central Government, or any State Government or Governments, or partly by the Central Government and partly by one or more State Governments; or

 (iii) Any company which is a subsidiary of a company referred to in item (ii); or

(iv) Any corporation established by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act; or

(v) Any society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (14 of 1860), or under any other corresponding law for the time being in force and wholly financed by the Central Government, or any State Government or State Governments, or partly by the Central Government and partly by one or more State Governments;

(6A) where in the case of a foreign company deriving income by way of royalty or fees for technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by the foreign company with Government or the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 1976 and, -

(a) Where the agreement relates to a matter included in the industrial policy, for the time being in force, of the Government of India, such agreement is in accordance with that policy; and

 (b) In any other case, the agreement is approved by the Central Government, the tax on such income is payable, under the terms of the agreement, by Government or the Indian concern to the Central Government, the tax so paid;

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause and clause (6B), - (a) “Fees for technical services” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

 (b) “Foreign company” shall have the same meaning as in section 80B;

(c) “Royalty” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

 (6B) Where in the case of a non-resident (not being a company) or of a foreign company deriving income (not being salary, royalty or fees for technical services) from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement entered into by the Central Government with the Government of a foreign State or an international organisation, the tax on such income is payable by Government or the Indian concern to the Central Government under the terms of that agreement or any other related agreement approved by the Central Government, the tax so paid;

(6BB) Where in the case of the Government of a foreign State or a foreign enterprise deriving income from an Indian company engaged in the business of operation of aircraft, as a consideration of acquiring an aircraft or an aircraft engine (other than payment for providing spares, facilities or services in connection with the operation of leased aircraft) on lease under an agreement entered into “after the 31st day of March, 1997 but before the 1st day of April, 1999 and approved by the Central Government in this behalf and the tax on such income is payable by such Indian company under the terms of that agreement to the Central Government, the tax so paid.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “foreign enterprise” means a person who is a non-resident.;

(6C) Any income arising to such foreign company, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, by way of fees for technical services received in pursuance of an agreement entered into with that Government for providing services in or outside India in projects connected with security of India;

 (7) Any allowances or perquisites paid or allowed as such outside India by the Government to a citizen of India for rendering service outside India;

(8) In the case of an individual who is assigned to duties in India in connection with any co-operative technical assistance programmes and projects in accordance with an agreement entered into by the Central Government and the Government of a foreign State (the terms whereof provide for the exemption given by this clause) – (a) The remuneration received by him directly or indirectly from the Government of that foreign State for such duties, and

(b) Any other income of such individual which accrues or arises outside India, and is not deemed to accrue or arise in India, in respect of which such individual is required to pay any income or social security tax to the Government of that foreign State;

(8A) In the case of a consultant - (a) Any remuneration or fee received by him or it, directly or indirectly, out of the funds made available to an international organisation [hereafter referred to in this clause and clause (8B) as the agency] under a technical assistance grant agreement between the agency and the Government of a foreign State; and

 (b) Any other income which accrues or arises to him or it outside India, and is not deemed to accrue or arise in India, in respect of which such consultant is required to pay any income or social security tax to the Government of the country of his or its origin.

 Explanation : In this clause, “consultant” means - (i) Any individual, who is either not a citizen of India or, being a citizen of India, is not ordinarily resident in India; or

 (ii) Any other person, being a non-resident, engaged by the agency for rendering technical services in India in connection with any technical assistance programme or project, provided the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (1) The technical assistance is in accordance with an agreement entered into by the Central Government and the agency; and

 (2) The agreement relating to the engagement of the consultant is approved by the prescribed authority for the purposes of this clause;

(8B) In the case of an individual who is assigned to duties in India in connection with any technical assistance programme and project in accordance with an agreement entered into by the Central Government and the agency - (a) The remuneration received by him, directly or indirectly, for such duties from any consultant referred to in clause (8A); and

(b) Any other income of such individual which accrues or arises outside India, and is not deemed to accrue or arise in India, in respect of which such individual is required to pay any income or social security tax to the country of his origin, provided the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :-

(i) The individual is an employee of the consultant referred to in clause (8A) and is either not a citizen of India or, being a citizen of India, is not ordinarily resident in India; and

 (ii) The contract of service of such individual is approved by the prescribed authority before the commencement of his service;

 (9) The income of any member of the family of any such individual as is referred to in clause (8) or clause (8A) or, as the case may be, clause (8B) accompanying him to India, which accrues or arises outside India, and is not deemed to accrue or arise in India, in respect of which such member is required to pay any income or social security tax to the Government of that foreign State or, as the case may be, country of origin of such member;

(10)(i) Any death-cum-retirement gratuity received under the revised Pension Rules of the Central Government or, as the case may be, the Central Civil Services (Pension) Rules, 1972, or under any similar scheme applicable to the members of the civil services of the Union or holders of posts connected with defence or of civil posts under the Union (such members or holders being persons not governed by the said Rules) or to the members of the all-India services or to the members of the civil services of a State or holders of civil posts under a State or to the employees of a local authority or any payment of retiring gratuity received under the Pension Code or Regulations applicable to the members of the defence services;

(ii) Any gratuity received under the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 (39 of 1972), to the extent it does not exceed an amount calculated in accordance with the provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 4 of that Act 185 ;

(iii) Any other gratuity received by an employee on his retirement or on his becoming incapacitated prior to such retirement or on termination of his employment, or any gratuity received by his widow, children or dependants on his death, to the extent it does not, in either case, exceed one-half month’s salary for each year of completed service, calculated on the basis of the average salary for the ten months immediately preceding the month in which any such event occurs, subject to such limit 188 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf having regard to the limit applicable in this behalf to the employees of that Government:

 Provided that where any gratuities referred to in this clause are received by an employee from more than one employer in the same previous year, the aggregate amount exempt from income-tax under this clause shall not exceed the limit so specified:

Provided further that where any such gratuity or gratuities was or were received in any one or more earlier previous years also and the whole or any part of the amount of such gratuity or gratuities was not included in the total income of the assessee of such previous year or years, the amount exempt from income-tax under this clause shall not exceed the limit so specified as reduced by the amount or, as the case may be, the aggregate amount not included in the total income of any such previous year or years :

 Explanation : In this clause, and in clause (10AA), “salary” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (h) of rule 2 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule;

(10A)(i) Any payment in commutation 193 of pension received under the Civil Pensions (Commutation) Rules of the Central Government or under any similar scheme applicable to the members of the civil services of the Union or holders of posts connected with defence or of civil posts under the Union (such members or holders being persons not governed by the said Rules) or to the members of the all-India services or to the members of the defence services or the members of the civil services of a State or holders of civil posts under a State or to the employees of a local authority 194 ] or a corporation established by a Central, State or Provincial Act;

 (ii) Any payment in commutation of pension received under any scheme of any other employer, to the extent it does not exceed - (a) In a case where the employee receives any gratuity, the commuted value of one-third of the pension which he is normally entitled to receive, and

 (b) In any other case, the commuted value of one-half of such pension, such commuted value being determined having regard to the age of the recipient, the state of his health, the rate of interest and officially recognised tables of mortality :

(iii) Any payment in commutation of pension received from a fund under clause (23AAB);

(10AA)(i) Any payment received by an employee of the Central Government or a State Government, as the cash equivalent of the leave salary in respect of the period of earned leave at his credit at the time of his retirement whether on superannuation or otherwise;

 (ii) Any payment of the nature referred to in sub-clause (i) received by an employee, other than an employee of the Central Government or a State Government, in respect of so much of the period of earned leave at his credit at the time of his retirement whether on superannuation or otherwise as does not exceed ten months, calculated on the basis of the average salary drawn by the employee during the period of ten months immediately preceding his retirement whether on superannuation or otherwise, subject to such limit 200 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf having regard to the limit applicable in this behalf to the employees of that Government :

 Provided that where any such payments are received by an employee from more than one employer in the same previous year, the aggregate amount exempt from income-tax under this sub-clause shall not exceed the limit so specified:

Provided further that where any such payment or payments was or were received in any one or more earlier previous years also and the whole or any part of the amount of such payment or payments was or were not included in the total income of the assessee of such previous year or years, the amount exempt from income-tax under this sub-clause shall not exceed the limit so specified, as reduced by the amount or, as the case may be, the aggregate amount not included in the total income of any such previous year or years :

Explanation : For the purposes of sub-clause (ii), - The entitlement to earned leave of an employee shall not exceed thirty days for every year of actual service rendered by him as an employee of the employer from whose service he has retired;

 (10B) Any compensation received by a workman under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), or under any other Act or Rules, orders or notifications issued thereunder or under any standing orders or under any award, contract of service or otherwise, at the time of his retrenchment :

Provided that the amount exempt under this clause shall not exceed - (i) An amount calculated in accordance with the provisions of 206 clause (b) of section 25F of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947); or

(ii) Such amount, not being less than fifty thousand rupees, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf,

 whichever is less : Provided further that the preceding proviso shall not apply in respect of any compensation received by a workman in accordance with any scheme which the Central Government may, having regard to the need for extending special protection to the workmen in the undertaking to which such scheme applies and other relevant circumstances, approve in this behalf.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause - (a) Compensation received by a workman at the time of the closing down of the undertaking in which he is employed shall be deemed to be compensation received at the time of his retrenchment;

 (b) Compensation received by a workman, at the time of the transfer (whether by agreement or by operation of law) of the ownership or management of the undertaking in which he is employed from the employer in relation to that undertaking to a new employer, shall be deemed to be compensation received at the time of his retrenchment if - (i) The service of the workman has been interrupted by such transfer; or

(ii) The terms and conditions of service applicable to the workman after such transfer are in any way less favourable to the workman than those applicable to him immediately before the transfer; or

 (iii) The new employer is, under the terms of such transfer or otherwise, legally not liable to pay to the workman, in the event of his retrenchment, compensation on the basis that his service has been continuous and has not been interrupted by the transfer;

(c) The expressions “employer” 208 and “workman” 208 shall have the same meanings as in the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947);

 (10BB) Any payments made under the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of Claims) Act, 1985 (21 of 1985), and any scheme framed thereunder except payment made to any assessee in connection with the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster to the extent such assessee has been allowed a deduction under this Act on account of any loss or damage caused to him by such disaster;

 (10C) Any amount received by an employee of - (i) A public sector company; or

 (ii) Any other company; or

(iii) An authority established under a Central, State or Provincial Act; or

 (iv) A local authority; or

(v) A co-operative society; or

(vi) A University established or incorporated by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act and an institution declared to be a University under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 (3 of 1956); or

(vii) An Indian Institute of Technology within the meaning of clause (g) of section 3 of the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 (59 of 1961); or

(viii) Such institute of management as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, at the time of his voluntary retirement in accordance with any scheme or schemes of voluntary retirement, to the extent such amount does not exceed five lakh rupees :

 Provided that the schemes of the said companies or authorities, or societies or Universities or the Institutes referred to in sub-clauses (vii) and (viii) as the case may be, governing the payment of such amount are framed in accordance with such guidelines (including, inter alia, criteria of economic viability) as may be prescribed and such schemes in relation to companies referred to in sub-clause (ii) or co-operative societies referred to in sub-clause (v) are approved by the Chief Commissioner or, as the case may be, Director-General in this behalf :

Provided further that where exemption has been allowed to an employee under this clause for any assessment year, no exemption thereunder shall be allowed to him in relation to any other assessment year;

(10D) Any sum received under a life insurance policy, including the sum allocated by way of bonus on such policy other than any sum received under sub-section (3) of section 80DDA or under a Keyman insurance policy.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “Keyman insurance policy” means a life insurance policy taken by a person on the life of another person who is or was the employee of the first mentioned person or is or was connected in any manner whatsoever with the business of the first mentioned person;

(11) Any payment from a provident fund to which the Provident Funds Act, 1925 (19 of 1925), applies or from any other provident fund set up by the Central Government and notified 211 by it in this behalf in the Official Gazette;

(12) the accumulated balance due and becoming payable to an employee participating in a recognised provident fund, to the extent provided in rule 8 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule;

 (13) Any payment from an approved superannuation fund made - (i) On the death of a beneficiary; or

 (ii) To an employee in lieu of or in commutation of an annuity on his retirement at or after a specified age or on his becoming incapacitated prior to such retirement; or

 (iii) By way of refund of contributions on the death of a beneficiary; or

(iv) By way of refund of contributions to an employee on his leaving the service in connection with which the fund is established otherwise than by retirement at or after a specified age or on his becoming incapacitated prior to such retirement, to the extent to which such payment does not exceed the contributions made prior to the commencement of this Act and any interest thereon;

 (13A) 213 any special allowance specifically granted to an assessee by his employer to meet expenditure actually incurred on payment of rent (by whatever name called) in respect of residential accommodation occupied by the assessee, to such extent as may be prescribed having regard to the area or place in which such accommodation is situate and other relevant considerations;

Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in a case where - (a) The residential accommodation occupied by the assessee is owned by him; or

 (b) The assessee has not actually incurred expenditure on payment of rent (by whatever name called) in respect of the residential accommodation occupied by him;

 (14)(i) Any such special allowance or benefit, not being in the nature of a perquisite within the meaning of clause (2) of section 17, specifically granted to meet expenses wholly, necessarily and exclusively incurred in the performance of the duties of an office or employment of profit, as may be prescribed, to the extent to which such expenses are actually incurred for that purpose;

(ii) Any such allowance granted to the assessee either to meet his personal expenses at the place where the duties of his office or employment of profit are ordinarily performed by him or at the place where he ordinarily resides, or to compensate him for the increased cost of living, as may be prescribed and to the extent as may be prescribed.

 Provided that nothing in sub-clause (ii) shall apply to any allowance in the nature of personal allowance granted to the assessee to remunerate or compensate him for performing duties of a special nature relating to his office or employment unless such allowance is related to the place of his posting or residence;

 (14A) Any income received by a public financial institution as exchange risk premium from any person borrowing foreign currency from such institution, provided the amount of such premium is credited by such institution to a fund specified under clause (23E).

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - (i) The expression “public financial institution” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(ii) The expression “exchange risk premium” means a premium paid by a person borrowing foreign currency from a public financial institution to cover the risk which may be borne by such institution on account of fluctuations in exchange rate of foreign currencies borrowed by such institution;

(15)(i) Income by way of interest, premium on redemption or other payment on such securities, bonds, annuity certificates, savings certificates, other certificates issued by the Central Government and deposits as the Central Government may, by notification 221 in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, subject to such conditions and limits as may be specified in the said notification;

(iib) In the case of an individual or a Hindu undivided family, interest on such Capital Investment Bonds as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 224 in this behalf;

(iic) In the case of an individual or a Hindu undivided family, interest on such Relief Bonds as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 226 in this behalf;

(iid) Interest on such bonds, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, 228 arising to - (a) A non-resident Indian, being an individual owning the bonds; or

 (b) Any individual owning the bonds by virtue of being a nominee or survivor of the non-resident Indian; or

 (c) Any individual to whom the bonds have been gifted by the non-resident Indian :

Provided that the aforesaid bonds are purchased by a non-resident Indian in foreign exchange and the interest and principal received in respect of such bonds, whether on their maturity or otherwise, is not allowable to be taken out of India :

 Provided further that where an individual, who is a non-resident Indian in any previous year in which the bonds are acquired, becomes a resident in India in any subsequent year, the provisions of this sub-clause shall continue to apply in relation to such individual :

Provided also that in a case where the bonds are encashed in a previous year prior to their maturity by an individual who is so entitled, the provisions of this sub-clause shall not apply to such individual in relation to the assessment year relevant to such previous year.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, theexpression “non-resident Indian” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (e) of section 115C;

 (iii) Interest on securities held by the Issue Department of the Central Bank of Ceylon constituted under the Ceylon Monetary Law Act, 1949;

 (iiia) Interest payable to any bank incorporated in a country outside India and authorised to perform central banking functions in that country on any deposits made by it, with the approval of the Reserve Bank of India, with any scheduled bank.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, “scheduled bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in 230 clause (ii) of the Explanation to clause (viia) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

 (iv) Interest payable - (a) By Government or a local authority on moneys borrowed by it from, or debts owed by it to, sources outside India;

(b) By an industrial undertaking in India on moneys borrowed by it under a loan agreement entered into with any such financial institution in a foreign country as may be approved 232 in this behalf by the Central Government by general or special order;

 (ba) The business of providing telecommunication services; or;

(c) By an industrial undertaking in India on any moneys borrowed or debt incurred by it in a foreign country in respect of the purchase outside India of raw materials or components or capital plant and machinery, to the extent to which such interest does not exceed the amount of interest calculated at the rate approved 235 by the Central Government in this behalf, having regard to the terms of the loan or debt and its repayment.

Explanation – : For the purposes of this item, “purchase of capital plant and machinery” includes the purchase of such capital plant and machinery under a hire-purchase agreement or a lease agreement with an option to purchase such plant and machinery;

(d) By the Industrial Finance Corporation of India established by the Industrial Finance Corporation Act, 1948 (15 of 1948) or the Industrial Development Bank of India established under the Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964 (18 of 1964), or the Export-Import Bank of India established under the Export-Import Bank of India Act, 1981 (28 of 1981) or the National Housing Bank established under section 3 of the National Housing Bank Act, 1987 (53 of 1987), or the Small Industries Development Bank of India established under section 3 of the Small Industries Development Bank of India Act, 1989 (39 of 1989), or the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India [a company formed and registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 (7 of 1913)], on any moneys borrowed by it from sources outside India, to the extent to which such interest does not exceed the amount of interest calculated at the rate approved by the Central Government in this behalf, having regard to the terms of the loan and its repayment;

 (e) By any other financial institution established in India or a banking company to which the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), applies (including any bank or banking institution referred to in section 51 of that Act), on any moneys borrowed by it from sources outside India under a loan agreement approved by the Central Government where the moneys are borrowed either for the purpose of advancing loans to industrial undertakings in India for purchase outside India of raw materials or capital plant and machinery or for the purpose of importing any goods which the Central Government may consider necessary to import in the public interest to the extent to which such interest does not exceed the amount of interest calculated at the rate approved by the Central Government in this behalf, having regard to the terms of the loan and its repayment;

 (f) By an industrial undertaking in India on any moneys borrowed by it in foreign currency from sources outside India under a loan agreement approved by the Central Government having regard to the need for industrial development in India, to the extent to which such interest does not exceed the amount of interest calculated at the rate approved by the Central Government in this behalf, having regard to the terms of the loan and its repayment;

(fa) By a scheduled bank, to a non-resident or to a person who is not ordinarily resident within the meaning of sub-section (6) 239c of section 6, on deposits in foreign currency where the acceptance of such deposits by the bank is approved by the Reserve Bank of India.

Explanation : For the purposes of this item, the expression “scheduled bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ii) of the Explanation to clause (viia) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

(g) By a public company formed and registered in India with the main object of carrying on the business of providing long term finance for construction or purchase of houses in India for residential purposes, being a company approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36, on any moneys borrowed by it in foreign currency from sources outside India under a loan agreement approved by the Central Government, to the extent to which such interest does not exceed the amount of interest calculated at the rate approved by the Central Government in this behalf, having regard to the terms of the loan and its repayment.

 Explanation : For the purposes of items (f), (fa) and (g), the expression “foreign currency” 242 shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973);

(h) By any public sector company in respect of such bonds or debentures and subject to such conditions, including the condition that the holder of such bonds or debentures registers his name and the holding with that company, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 244 in this behalf;

 (i) By Government on deposits made by an employee of the Central Government or a State Government or a public sector company, in accordance with such scheme 247 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf, out of the moneys due to him on account of his retirement, whether on superannuation or otherwise;

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, the expression “industrial undertaking” means any undertaking which is engaged in – (a) The manufacture or processing of goods; or

(aa) The manufacture of computer software or recording of programme on any disc, tape, perforated media or other information device; or

 (b) The business of generation or distribution of electricity or any other form of power; or

 (ba) The business of providing telecommunication services; or

(c) Mining; or

(d) The construction of ships; or

(e) The operation of ships or aircrafts or construction or operation of rail systems;

 Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “interest” includes hedging transaction charges on account of currency fluctuation.

(v) Interest on - (a) Securities held by the Welfare Commissioner, Bhopal Gas Victims, Bhopal, in the Reserve Bank’s SGL Account No. SL/DH048;

(b) Deposits for the benefit of the victims of the Bhopal gas leak disaster held in such account, with the Reserve Bank of India or with a public sector bank, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, whether prospectively or retrospectively but in no case earlier than the 1st day of April, 1994 in this behalf.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, the expression “public sector bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to clause (23D);

 vi) Interest on Gold Deposit Bonds issued under the Gold Deposit Scheme, 1999 notified by the Central Government;

(15A) Any payment made, by an Indian company engaged in the business of operation of aircraft, to acquire an aircraft or an aircraft engine (other than a payment for providing spares, facilities or services in connection with the operation of leased aircraft) on lease from the Government of a foreign State or a foreign enterprise under an agreement entered into between the 1st day of April, 1997 and approved by the Central Government in this behalf.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “foreign enterprise” means a person who is a non-resident;

 (16) Scholarships granted to meet the cost of education;

(17) Any income by way of - (i) Daily allowance received by any person by reason of his membership of Parliament or of any State Legislature or of any Committee thereof;

 (ii) Any allowance received by any person by reason of his membership of Parliament under the Members of Parliament (Constituency Allowance) Rules, 1986;

(iii) All other allowances not exceeding two thousand rupees per month in the aggregate received by any person by reason of his membership of any State Legislature or of any Committee thereof, which the Central Government may, by notification 253 in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

 (17A) Any payment made, whether in cash or in kind, - (i) In pursuance of any award instituted in the public interest by the Central Government or any State Government or instituted by any other body and approved by the Central Government in this behalf; or

 (ii) As a reward by the Central Government or any State Government for such purposes as may be approved by the Central Government in this behalf in the public interest;

 (18) Any income by way of - (i) Pension received by an individual who has been in the service of the Central or State Government and has been awarded “Param Vir Chakra” or “Maha Vir Chakra” or “Vir Chakra” or such other gallantry award as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

 (ii) Family pension received by any member of the family of an individual referred to in sub-clause (i).

 Explanation. – For the purposes of this clause, the expression “family” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to clause (5).’

(19A) The annual value of any one palace in the occupation of a Ruler, being a palace, the annual value whereof was exempt from income-tax before the commencement of the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, by virtue of the provisions of the Merged States (Taxation Concessions) Order, 1949, or the Part B States (Taxation Concessions) Order, 1950, or, as the case may be, the Jammu and Kashmir (Taxation Concessions) Order, 1958 :

Provided that for the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1972, the annual value of every such palace in the occupation of such Ruler during the relevant previous year shall be exempt from income-tax;

(20) The income of a local authority which is chargeable under the head, “Income from house property”, “Capital gains”, or “Income from other sources” or from a trade or business carried on by it which accrues or arises from the supply of a commodity or service (not being water or electricity) within its own jurisdictional area or from the supply of water or electricity within or outside its own jurisdictional area;

(20A) Any income of an authority constituted in India by or under any law enacted either for the purpose of dealing with and satisfying the need for housing accommodation or for the purpose of planning, development or improvement of cities, towns and villages, or for both;

(21) Any income of a scientific research association for the time being approved 262 for the purpose of clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 35 :

Provided that the scientific research association - (a) Applies 262a its income, or accumulates it for application, wholly and exclusively to the objects for which it is established, and the provisions of sub-section (2) and sub-section (3) of section 11 shall apply in relation to such accumulation subject to the following modifications, namely :- (i) In sub-section (2), - (1) The words, brackets, letters, and figure “referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) read with the Explanation to that sub-section” shall be omitted;

 (2) For the words “to charitable or religious purposes”, the words “for the purposes of scientific research” shall be substituted;

(3) The reference to “Assessing Officer” in clause (a) thereof shall be construed as a reference to the “prescribed authority” referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 35;

(ii) In sub-section (3), in clause (a), for the words “charitable or religious purposes”, the words “the purposes of scientific research” shall be substituted; and (b) does not invest or deposit its funds, other than - (i) Any assets held by the scientific research association where such assets form part of the corpus of the fund of the association as on the 1st day of June, 1973;

(ii) Any assets (being debentures issued by, or on behalf of, any company or corporation), acquired by the scientific research association before the 1st day of March, 1983;

 (iii) Any accretion to the shares, forming part of the corpus of the fund mentioned in sub-clause (i), by way of bonus shares allotted to the scientific research association;

 (iv) Voluntary contributions received and maintained in the form of jewellery, furniture or any other article as the Board may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, for any period during the previous year otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11 :

Provided further that the exemption under this clause shall not be denied in relation to voluntary contribution, other than voluntary contribution in cash or voluntary contribution of the nature referred to in clause (b) of the first proviso to this clause, subject to the condition that such voluntary contribution is not held by the scientific research association, otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11, after the expiry of one year from the end of the previous year in which such asset is acquired or the 31st day of March, 1992, whichever is later :

 Provided also that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in relation to any income of the scientific research association, being profits and gains of business, unless the business is incidental to the attainment of its objectives and separate books of accounts are maintained by it in respect of such business;

(22B) Any income of such news agency set up in India solely for collection and distribution of news as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf :

Provided that the news agency applies its income or accumulates it for application solely for collection and distribution of news and does not distribute its income in any manner to its members :

Provided further that any notification issued by the Central Government under this clause shall, at any one time, have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding three assessment years (including an assessment year or years commencing before the date on which such notification is issued) as may be specified in the notification;

(23) Any income of an association or institution established in India which may be notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette having regard to the fact that the association or institution has as its object the control, supervision, regulation or encouragement in India of the games of cricket, hockey, football, tennis or such other games or sports as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf :

Provided that the association or institution shall make an application in the prescribed form and manner 266 to the prescribed authority for the purpose of grant of the exemption, or continuance thereof, under this clause : Provided further that the Central Government may, before notifying the association or institution under this clause call for such documents (including audited annual accounts) or information from the association or institution as it thinks necessary in order to satisfy itself about the genuineness of the activities of the association or institution and that Government may also make such inquiries as it may deem necessary in this behalf :

Provided also that the association or institution, - (a) Applies its income or accumulates it for application, wholly and exclusively to the objects for which it is established and the provisions of sub-section (2) and sub-section (3) of section 11 shall apply in relation to such accumulation subject to the following modifications, namely :- (i) In sub-section (2), - (1) The words, brackets, letters and figure “referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) read with the Explanation to that sub-section” shall be omitted;

 (2) For the words “to charitable or religious purposes”, the words “for the purposes of games or sports” shall be substituted;

 (3) The reference to “Assessing Officer” in clause (a) thereof shall be construed as a reference to the “prescribed authority” referred to in the first proviso to this clause; (ii) in sub-section (3), in clause (a), for the words “charitable or religious purposes”, the words “the purposes of games or sports” shall be substituted; and

(b) Does not invest or deposit its funds, other than - (i) Any assets held by the association or institution where such assets form part of the corpus of the fund of the association or institution as on the 1st day of June, 1973;

(ii) Any assets (being debentures issued by, or on behalf of, any company or corporation), acquired by the association or institution before the 1st day of March, 1983;

(iii) Any accretion to the shares, forming part of the corpus of the fund mentioned in sub-clause (i), by way of bonus shares allotted to the association or institution;

 (iv) Voluntary contributions received and maintained in the form of jewellery, furniture or any other article as the Board may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, for any period during the previous year otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11; and

(c) Does not distribute any part of its income in any manner to its members except as grants to any association or institution affiliated to it :

Provided also that the exemption under this clause shall not be denied in relation to any funds invested or deposited before the 1st day of April, 1989 otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11 if such funds do not continue to remain so invested or deposited after [ 267a the 30th day of March, 1993:

Provided also that the exemption under this clause shall not be denied in relation to voluntary contribution, other than voluntary contribution in cash or voluntary contribution of the nature referred to in clause (b) of the third proviso to this clause, subject to the condition that such voluntary contribution is not held by the association or institution, otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11, after the expiry of one year from the end of the previous year in which such asset is acquired or the 31st day of March, 1992, whichever is later :

Provided also that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in relation to any income of the association or institution, being profits and gains of business, unless the business is incidental to the attainment of its objectives and separate books of accounts are maintained by it in respect of such business :

 Provided also that any notification issued by the Central Government under this clause in relation to any association or institution shall, at any one time, have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding three assessment years (including an assessment year or years commencing before the date on which such notification is issued) as may be specified in the notification;

(23A) Any income (other than income chargeable under the head "Income from house property" or any income received for rendering any specific services or income by way of interest or derived dividends from its investments) of an association or institution established in India having as its object the control, supervision, regulation or encouragement of the profession of law, medicine, accountancy, engineering or architecture or such other profession as the Central Government may specify 271 in this behalf, from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette :

Provided that - (i) The association or institution applies its income, or accumulates it for application, solely to the objects for which it is established; and

(ii) The association or institution is for the time being approved 272 for the purpose of this clause by the Central Government by general or special order;

(23AA) Any income received by any person on behalf of any Regimental Fund or Non-Public Fund established by the armed forces of the Union for the welfare of the past and present members of such forces or their dependants;

(23AAA) Any income received by any person on behalf of a fund established, for such purposes as may be notified by the Board in the Official Gazette, for the welfare of employees or their dependants and of which fund such employees are members if such fund fulfils the following conditions, namely :-

(a) The fund - (i) Applies its income, or accumulates it for application, wholly and exclusively to the objects for which it is established; and

(ii) Invests its funds and contributions and other sums received by it in the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11;

(b) The fund is approved by the Commissioner in accordance with the rules made in this behalf :

 Provided that any such approval shall at any one time have effect for such assessment year or years not exceeding three assessment years as may be specified in the order of approval;

(23AAB) Any income of a fund, by whatever name called, set up by the Life Insurance Corporation of India on or after the 1st day of August, 1996 under a pension scheme, - (i) To which contribution is made by any person for the purpose of receiving pension from such fund;

 (ii) Which is approved by the Controller of Insurance.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression "Controller of Insurance" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (5B) of section 2 of the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938);

(23B) Any income of an institution constituted as a public charitable trust or registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), or under any law corresponding to that Act in force in any part of India, and existing solely for the development of khadi or village industries or both, and not for the purposes of profit, to the extent such income is attributable to the business of production, sale, or marketing, of khadi or products of village industries :

Provided that - (i) The institution applies its income, or accumulates it for application, solely for the development of khadi or village industries or both; and

(ii) The institution is, for the time being, approved for the purpose of this clause by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission :

Provided further that the Commission shall not, at any one time, grant such approval for more than three assessment years beginning with the assessment year next following the financial year in which it is granted.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - (i) "Khadi and Village Industries Commission" means the Khadi and Village Industries Commission established under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956 (61 of 1956);

(ii) "Khadi" and "village industries" have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Act;

 (23BB) Any income of an authority (whether known as the Khadi and Village Industries Board or by any other name) established in a State by or under a State or Provincial Act for the development of khadi or village industries in the State.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, "khadi" and "village industries" have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956 (61 of 1956);

(23BBA) Any income of any body or authority (whether or not a body corporate or corporation sole) established, constituted or appointed by or under any Central, State or Provincial Act which provides for the administration of any one or more of the following, that is to say, public religious or charitable trusts or endowments (including maths, temples, gurdwaras, wakfs, churches, synagogues, agiaries or other places of public religious worship) or societies for religious or charitable purposes registered as such under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), or any other law for the time being in force :

Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed to exempt from tax the income of any trust, endowment or society referred to therein;

(23BBB) Any income of the European Economic Community derived in India by way of interest, dividends or capital gains from investments made out of its funds under such scheme as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, "European Economic Community" means the European Economic Community established by the Treaty of Rome of 25th March, 1957;

 (23BBC) Any income of the SAARC Fund for Regional Projects set up by Colombo Declaration issued on the 21st day of December, 1991 by the Heads of State or Government of the Member Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation established on the 8th day of December, 1985 by the Charter of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation;

(23C) Any income received by any person on behalf of - (i) The Prime Minister's National Relief Fund; or

 (ii) The Prime Minister's Fund (Promotion of Folk Art); or

(iii) The Prime Minister's Aid to Students Fund; or

(iiia) The National Foundation for Communal Harmony; or

(iiiab) Any university or other educational institution existing solely for educational purposes and not for purposes of profit, and which is wholly or substantially financed by the Government; or

 (iiiac) Any hospital or other institution for the reception and treatment of persons suffering from illness or mental defectiveness or for the reception and treatment of persons during convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or rehabilitation, existing solely for philanthropic purposes and not for purposes of profit and which is wholly or substantially financed by the Government; or

(iiiad) Any university or other educational institution existing solely for educational purposes and not for purposes of profit if the aggregate annual receipts of such university or educational institution do not exceed the amount of annual receipts as may be prescribed; or

 (iiiae) Any hospital or other institution for the reception and treatment of persons suffering from illness or mental defectiveness or for the reception and treatment of persons during convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or rehabilitation, existing solely for philanthropic purposes and not for purposes of profit, if the aggregate annual receipts of such hospital or institution do not exceed the amount of annual receipts as may be prescribed; or

(iv) Any other fund or institution established for charitable purposes which may be notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette, having regard to the objects of the fund or institution and its importance throughout India or throughout any State or States; or

 (v) Any trust (including any other legal obligation) or institution wholly for public religious purposes or wholly for public religious and charitable purposes, which may be notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette, having regard to the manner in which the affairs of the trust or institution are administered and supervised for ensuring that the income accruing thereto is properly applied for the objects thereof;

 (vi) Any university or other educational institution existing solely for educational purposes and not for purposes of profit, other than those mentioned in sub-clause (iiiab) or sub-clause (iiiad) and which may be approved by the prescribed authority; or

 (via) Any hospital or other institution for the reception and treatment of persons suffering from illness or mental defectiveness or for the reception and treatment of persons during convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or rehabilitation, existing solely for philanthropic purposes and not for purposes of profit, other than those mentioned in sub-clause (iiiac) or sub-clause (iiiae) and which may be approved by the prescribed authority :

 Provided that the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution referred to in sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) shall make an application in the prescribed form and manner 278 to the prescribed authority for the purpose of grant of the exemption, or continuance thereof, under sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via)

Provided further that the Central Government, before notifying the fund or trust or institution or the prescribed authority, before approving any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution 277c ] under sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) 277c ], may call for such documents (including audited annual accounts) or information from the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution, as the case may be, as it thinks necessary in order to satisfy itself about the genuineness of the activities of the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution, as the case may be, and that Central Government or the prescribed authority, as the case may also make such inquiries as it may deem necessary in this behalf :

 Provided also that the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution referred to in sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) - or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) - (a) Applies its income, or accumulates it for application 278a , wholly and exclusively to the objects for which it is established; and

 (b) Does not invest or deposit its funds, other than - (i) Any assets held by the fund, trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution. where such assets form part of the corpus of the fund, trust of institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution. as on the 1st day of June, 1973;

(ii) Any assets (being debentures issued by, or on behalf of, any company or corporation), acquired by the fund, trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution. before the 1st day of March, 1983;

 (iii) Any accretion to the shares, forming part of the corpus fund, trust mentioned in sub-clause (i), by way of bonus shares allotted to the association or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution;

 (iv) Voluntary contributions received and maintained in the form of jewellery, furniture or any other article as the Board may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, for any period during the previous year otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11:

 Provided also that the exemption under sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) shall not be denied in relation to any funds invested or deposited before the 1st day of April, 1989 otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11 if such funds do not continue to remain so invested or deposited after the 30th day of March, 1993:

Provided also that the exemption under sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) shall not be denied in relation to any funds invested or deposited before the 1st day of June, 1998, otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11 if such funds do not continue to remain so invested or deposited after the 30th day of March, 2001 :

Provided also that the exemption under sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) [ 279ba (or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) shall not be denied in relation to voluntary contribution, other than voluntary contribution in cash or voluntary contribution of the nature referred to in clause (b) of the third proviso to this sub-clause, subject to the condition that such voluntary contribution is not held by the trust or institution, or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution. otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11, after the expiry of one year from the end of the previous year in which such asset is acquired or the 31st day of March, 1992, whichever is later :

Provided also that nothing contained in sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) shall apply in relation to any income of the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution, being profits and gains of business, unless the business is incidental to the attainment of its objectives and separate books of accounts are maintained by it in respect of such business :

Provided also that any notification issued by the Central Government under clause (vi) or clause (via) shall, at any one time, have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding three assessment years (including an assessment year or years commencing before the date on which such notification is issued) as may be specified in the notification;

 (23D) Any income of - (i) A Mutual Fund registered under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992) or regulations made thereunder;

(ii) Such other Mutual Fund set up by a public sector bank or a public financial institution or authorised by the Reserve Bank of India and subject to such conditions as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - (a) The expression "public sector bank" means the State Bank of India constituted under the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955), a subsidiary bank as defined in the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959 (38 of 1959), a corresponding new bank constituted under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970 (5 of 1970), or under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1980 (40 of 1980);

(b) The expression "public financial institution" shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

 (c) The expression "Securities and Exchange Board of India" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992. (15 of 1992);

(23E) Any income of such Exchange Risk Administration Fund set up by public financial institutions, either jointly or separately, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf :

Provided that where any amount standing to the credit of the Fund and not charged to income-tax during any previous year is shared, either wholly or in part, with a public financial institution, the whole of the amount so shared shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which such amount is so shared and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression "public financial institution" shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

 (23F) Any income by way of dividends or long-term capital gains of a venture capital fund or a venture capital company from investments made by way of equity shares in a venture capital undertaking :

Provided that such venture capital fund or venture capital company is approved for the purposes of this clause by the prescribed authority in accordance with the rules made in this behalf and satisfies the prescribed conditions :

Provided further that any approval by the prescribed authority shall, at any one time, have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding three assessment years, as may be specified in the order of approval :

Provided also that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in respect of any investment made after the 31st day of March, 1999.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, (a) "Venture capital fund" means such fund, operating under a trust deed registered under the provisions of the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), established to raise monies by the trustees for investments mainly by way of acquiring equity shares of a venture capital undertaking in accordance with the prescribed guidelines;

(b) "Venture capital company" means such company as has made investments by way of acquiring equity shares of venture capital undertakings in accordance with the prescribed guidelines; and

(c) "Venture capital undertaking" means such domestic company whose shares are not listed in a recognised stock exchange in India and which is engaged in the business or generation or generation and distribution of electricity or any other form of power or engaged in the business of providing telecommunication services or in the business of developing, maintaining and operating any infrastructure facility or engaged in the manufacture or production of such articles or things (including computer software) as may be notified by the Central Government in this behalf;

(d) "Infrastructure facility" means road, highway, bridge, airport, port rail system, water supply project, irrigation project, sanitation and sewerage system or any other public facility of a similar nature as may be notified by the Board in this behalf in the Official Gazette and which fulfils the conditions specified in sub-section (4A) of section 80-IA;

 (23FA) Any income by way of dividends, other than dividends referred to in section 115-O, or long-term capital gains of a venture capital fund or a venture capital company from investments made by way of equity shares in a venture capital undertaking :

 Provided that such venture capital fund or venture capital company is approved, for the purposes of this clause, by the Central Government on an application made to it in accordance with the rules made in this behalf and which satisfies the prescribed conditions : Provided further that any approval by the Central Government shall, at any one time, have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding three assessment years, as may be specified in the order of approval.

 Explanation. - For the purposes of this clause, - (a) "Venture capital fund" means such fund, operating under a trust deed registered under the provisions of the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908) established to raise monies by the trustees for investments mainly by way of acquiring equity shares of a venture capital undertaking in accordance with the prescribed guidelines;

 (b) "Venture capital company" means such company as has made investments by way of acquiring equity shares of venture capital undertakings in accordance with the prescribed guidelines; and

 (c) "Venture capital undertaking" means such domestic company whose shares are not listed in a recognised stock exchange in India and which is engaged in the - (i) Business of - (A) Software;

 (B) Information technology;

(C) Production of basic drugs in the pharmaceutical sector;

(D) Bio-technology;

(E) Agriculture and allied sectors; or

(F) Such other sectors as may be notified by the Central Government in this behalf; or

 (ii) Production or manufacture of any article or substance for which patent has been granted to the National Research Laboratory or any other scientific research institution approved by the Department of Science and Technology;

(23G) Any income by way of dividends, other than dividends referred to in section 115-O, interest or long-term capital gains of an infrastructure capital fund or an infrastructure capital company from investments made on or after the 1st day of June, 1998 by way of shares or long-term finance in any enterprise wholly engaged in the business of developing, maintaining and operating, any infrastructure facility and which has been approved by the Central Government on an application made by it in accordance with the rules made in this behalf and which satisfies the prescribed conditions.

Explanation : For the purposes of the clause, - (a) "Infrastructure capital company" means such company as has made investments by way of acquiring shares or providing long term finance to an enterprise wholly engaged in the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facility;

 (b) "Infrastructure capital fund" means such fund operating under a trust deed, registered under the provisions of the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908) established to raise monies by the trustees for investment by way of acquiring shares or providing long-term finance to an enterprise wholly engaged in the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facility;

 (c) "Infrastructure facility" means - (i) A road, highway, bridge, airport, port, rail system, a water supply project, irrigation project, sanitation and sewerage system or any other public facility of a similar nature as may be notified by the Board in this behalf in the Official Gazette and which fulfils the conditions specified in sub-section (4A) of section 80-IA;

(ii) A project for generation or generation and distribution of electricity or any other form of power where such project starts generating power on or after the 1st day of April, 1993;

(ii) A project for generation or generation and distribution of electricity or any other form of power where such project starts generating power on or after the 1st day of April, 1993;"

 (iii) A project for providing telecommunication services on or after the 1st day of April, 1995;

(iv) A project for housing which fulfils the conditions specified in sub-section (4F) of section 80-IA;

 (d) "Long-term finance" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

 Explanation 2. - For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any income by way of dividends, interest or long-term capital gains of an infrastructure capital fund or an infrastructure capital company from invtestment made before the 1st day of June, 1998 by way of shares or long-term finance in any enterprise carrying of the business of developing, maintaining and operating any infrastructure facility shall bot be included and the provisions of this clause as it stood immediately before its amendment by the Finance (No.2) Act, 1998 (21 of 1998) shall apply to such income;

 (24) Any income chargeable under the heads "Income from house property" and "Income from other sources" of - (a) A registered union within the meaning of the Trade Unions Act, 1926 (16 of 1926) formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen;

 (b) An association of registered unions referred to in sub-clause (a);

(25)(i) Interest on securities which are held by, or are the property of, any provident fund to which the Provident Funds Act, 1925 (19 of 1925), applies, and any capital gains of the fund arising from the sale, exchange or transfer of such securities;

 (ii) Any income received by the trustees on behalf of a recognised provident fund;

 (iii) Any income received by the trustees on behalf of an approved superannuation fund;

 (iv) Any income received by the trustees on behalf of an approved gratuity fund;

 (v) Any income received - (a) By the Board of Trustees constituted under the Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1948 (46 of 1948), on behalf of the Deposit-linked Insurance Fund established under section 3G of that Act; or

 (b) By the Board of Trustees constituted under the Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952), on behalf of the Deposit-linked Insurance Fund established under section 6C of that Act;

(25A) Any income of the Employees' State Insurance Fund set up under the provisions of the Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (34 of 1948);

(26) In the case of a member of a Scheduled Tribe 289 as defined in clause (25) of article 366 of the Constitution, residing in any area specified in Part I or Part II of the Table appended to paragraph 20 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution or in the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura or in the areas covered by notification No. TAD/R/35/50/109, dated the 23rd February, 1951, issued by the Governor of Assam under the proviso to sub-paragraph (3) of the said paragraph 20 [as it stood immediately before the commencement of the North-Eastern Area (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 (18 of 1971) or in the Ladakh region of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, any income which accrues or arises to him, - (a) From any source in the areas or States aforesaid, or

(b) By way of dividend or interest on securities;

(26A) Any income accruing or arising to any person from any source in the district of Ladakh or outside India in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing before the 1st day of April, 1989, where such person is resident in the said district in that previous year :

 Provided that this clause shall not apply in the case of any such person unless he was resident in that district in the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1962.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, a person shall be demeed to be resident in the district of Ladakh if he fulfils the requirements of sub-section 293a (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) of section 6, as the case may be, subject to the modifications that - (i) References in those sub-sections 293b to India shall be construed as references to the said district; and

(ii) In clause 293c (i) of sub-section (3), reference to Indian company shall be construed as reference to a company formed and registered under any law for the time being inforce in the State of Jammu and Kashmir and having its registered office in that district in that year;

 Explanation 2 : In this clause, references to the district of Ladakh shall be construed as references to the areas comprised in the said district on the 30th day of June, 1979;

 (26B) Any income of a corporation established by a Central, State or Provincial Act or of any other body, institution or association (being a body, institution or association wholly financed by Government) where such corporation or other body or institution or association has been established or formed for promoting the interests of the members of the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes or backward classes or of any two or all of them.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - (a) "Scheduled Castes" and "Scheduled Tribes" shall have the meaning respectively assigned to them in clauses (24) and (25) of articles 366 of the Constitution;

 (b) "Backward classes" means such classes of citizens, other than the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, as may be notified - (i) By the Central Government; or

 (ii) By any State Government, as the case may be, from time to time;

(26BB) Any income of a corporation established by the Central Government or any State Government for promoting the interests of the members of a minority community.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, "minority community" means a community notified as such by the Central Government in the Official Gazette in this behalf;

(27) Any income of co-operative society formed for promoting the interests of the members of either the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes or both referred to in clause (26B) :

Provided that the membership of the co-operative society consists of only other co-operative societies formed for similar purposes and the finances of the society are provided by the Government and such other societies;

(29) In the case of an authority constituted under any law for the time being in force for the marketing of commodities, any income derived from the letting of godowns or warehouses for storage, processing or facilitating the marketing of commodities;

 (29A) Any income accruing or arising to - (a) The Coffee Board constituted under section 4 of the Coffee Act, 1942 (7 of 1942) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1962 or the previous year in which such Board was constituted, whichever is later;

(b) The Rubber Board constituted under sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Rubber Board Act, 1947 (24 of 1947) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1962 or the previous year in which such Board was constituted, whichever is later;

(c) The Tea Board established under section 4 of the Tea Act, 1953 (29 of 1953) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1962 or the previous year in which such Board was constituted, whichever is later;

 (d) The Tobacco Board constituted under the Tobacco Board Act, 1975 (4 of 1975) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1975 or the previous year in which such Board was constituted, whichever is later;

(e) The Marine Products Export Development Authority established under section 4 of the Marine Products Export Development Authority Act, 1972 (13 of 1972) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1972 or the previous year in which such Authority was constituted, whichever is later;

 (f) The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority established under section 4 of the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Act, 1985 (2 of 1986) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1985 or the previous year in which such Authority was constituted, whichever is later;

(g) The Spices Board constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Spices Board Act, 1986 (10 of 1986) in any previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1986 or the previous year in which such Board was constituted, whichever is later;

(30) 301 in the case of an assessee who carries on the business of growing and manufacturing tea in India, the amount of any subsidy received from or through the Tea Board under any such scheme 302 for replantation or replacement 301 of tea bushes or for rejuvenation or consolidation of areas used for cultivation of tea as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify :

Provided that the assessee furnishes to the Assessing Officer, along with his return of income for the assessment year concerned or within such further time as the Assessing Officer may allow, a certificate from the Tea Board as to the amount of such subsidy paid to the assessee during the previous year.

Explanation : In this clause, "Tea Board" means the Tea Board established under section 4 of the Tea Act, 1953 (29 of 1953);

 (31) In the case of an assessee who carries on the business of growing and manufacturing rubber, coffee, cardamom or such other commodity in India, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, the amount of any subsidy received from or through the concerned Board under any such scheme for replantation or replacement of rubber plants, coffee plants, cardamom plants or plants for the growing of such other commodity or for rejuvenation or consolidation of areas used for cultivation of rubber, coffee, cardamom or such other commodity as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify :

 Provided that the assessee furnishes to the Assessing Officer, along with his return of income for the assessment year concerned or within such further time as the Assessing Officer may allow, a certificate from the concerned Board, as to the amount of such subsidy paid to the assessee during the previous year.

Explanation : In this clause, "concerned Board" means - (i) In relation to rubber, the Rubber Board constituted under section 4 of the Rubber Act, 1947 (24 of 1947),

 (ii) In relation to coffee, the Coffee Board constituted under section 4 of the Coffee Act, 1942 (7 of 1942),

(iii) In relation to cardamom, the Spices Board constituted under section 3 of the Spices Board Act, 1986 (10 of 1986),

 (iv) In relation to any other commodity specified under this clause, any Board or other authority established under any law for the time being in force which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

 (32) In the case of an assessee referred to in sub-section (1A) of section 64, any income includible in his total income under that sub-section, to the extent such income does not exceed one thousand five hundred rupees in respect of each minor child whose income is so includible;

(33) Any income by way of dividends referred to in section 115-O.

Section 10A .SPECIAL PROVISION IN RESPECT OF NEWLY ESTABLISHED INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS IN FREE TRADE ZONES.

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any profits and gains derived by an assessee from an industrial undertaking to which this section applies shall not be included in the total income of the assessee.

(2) This section applies to any industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :-

 (i) It has begun or begins to manufacture or produce articles or things during the previous year relevant to the assessment year -

(a) Commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1981, in any free trade zone; or

 (b) Commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1994, in any electronic hardware technology park or, as the case may be, software technology park;

(ia) In relation to an undertaking which begins to manufacture or produce any article or thing on or after the 1st day of April, 1995, its exports of such articles or things are not less than seventy-five per cent of the total sales thereof during the previous year;

(ii) It is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence : Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of any industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

 (iii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose. Explanation : The provisions of Explanation 1 and Explanation 2 to sub-section (2) of section 80-I shall apply for the purposes of clause (iii) of this sub-section as they apply for the purposes of clause (ii) of that sub-section.

(3) The profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1) shall not be included in the total income of the assessee in respect of any five consecutive assessment years, falling within a period of eight years beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things specified by the assessee at his option

"Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be construed to extend the aforesaid five assessment years to cover any period after the expiry of the said period of eight years."

 (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, in computing the total income of the assessee of the previous year relevant to the assessment year immediately succeeding the last of the relevant assessment years, or of any previous year, relevant to any subsequent assessment year -

(i) Section 32, section 32A, section 33, section 35 and clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36 shall apply as if every allowance or deduction referred to therein and relating to or allowable for any of the relevant assessment years, in relation to any building, machinery, plant or furniture used for the purposes of the business of the industrial undertaking in the previous year relevant to such assessment year or any expenditure incurred for the purposes of such business in such previous year had been given full effect to for that assessment year itself and accordingly sub-section (2) of section 32, clause (ii) of sub-section (3) of section 32A, clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of section 33, sub-section (4) of section 35 or the second proviso to clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36, as the case may be, shall not apply in relation to any such allowance or deduction;

 (ii) No loss referred to in sub-section (1) of section 72 or sub-section (1)[ 309 or sub-section (3) 309 ] of section 74 and no deficiency referred to in sub-section (3) of section 80J, in so far as such loss or deficiency relates to the business of the industrial undertaking, shall be carried forward or set off where such loss, or as the case may be, deficiency relates to any of the relevant assessment years;

(iii) No deduction shall be allowed under section 80HH or section 80HHA or section 80-I [section 80-IA] [section 80-IB] or section 80J in relation to the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking; and

(iv) In computing the depreciation allowance under section 32, the written down value of any asset used for the purposes of the business of the industrial undertaking shall be computed as if the assessee had claimed and been actually allowed the deduction in respect of depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

(5) Where an industrial undertaking in any free trade zone has begun to manufacture or produce articles or things in any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1977, but before the 1st day of April, 1981, the assessee may, at his option, before the expiry of the time allowed under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 139, whether fixed originally or on extension, for furnishing the return of income for the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1981, furnish to the [Assessing Officer] a declaration in writing that the provisions of sub-section (1) may be made applicable to him for each of the relevant assessment years as reduced by the number of assessment years which expired before the 1st day of April, 1981, and if he does so, then the provisions of sub-section (1) shall apply to him for each of such relevant assessment years and the provisions of sub-section (4) shall also apply in computing the total income of the assessee for the assessment year immediately succeeding the last of the relevant assessment years and any subsequent assessment year.

 (6) The provisions of sub-section (8) and sub-section (9) of section 80-I shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the industrial undertaking referred to in this section as they apply for the purposes of the industrial undertaking referred to in section 80-I.

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, where the assessee, [before the due date for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139], furnishes to the [Assessing Officer] a declaration in writing that the provisions of this section may not be made applicable to him, the provisions of this section shall not apply to him for any of the relevant assessment years.

(8) References [sub-section (5)] to any other provision of this Act, which has been amended or omitted by the Direct Tax Laws (Amendment) Act, 1987 shall, notwithstanding such amendment or omission, be construed, for the [purposes of that sub-section], as if such amendment or omission had not been made.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “free trade zone” means the Kandla Free Trade Zone and the Santacruz Electronics Export Processing Zone and includes any other free trade zone which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 316 for the purposes of this section;

 (ii) “Relevant assessment years” means the five consecutive assessment years specified by the assessee at his option under sub-section (3);

(iii) “Manufacture” includes any -

(a) Process, or

(b) Assembling, or

(c) Recording of programmes on any disc, tape, perforated media or other information storage device.

(iv) “Electronic hardware technology park” means any park set up in accordance with the Electronic Hardware Technology Park (EHTP) Scheme notified by the Government of India in the Ministry of Commerce 318b ;

 (v) “Software technology park” means any park set up in accordance with the Software Technology Park Scheme notified by the Government of India in the Ministry of Commerce;

(vi) “Produce”, in relation to articles or things referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (2), includes production of computer programmes 318b ;

Section 10B. SPECIAL PROVISION IN RESPECT OF NEWLY ESTABLISHED HUNDRED PER CENT EXPORT-ORIENTED UNDERTAKINGS.

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any profits and gains derived by an assessee from a hundred per cent export-oriented undertaking (hereafter in this section referred to as the undertaking) to which this section applies shall not be included in the total income of the assessee.

(2) This section applies to any undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :-

 (i) It manufactures or produces any article or thing;

(ia) In relation to an undertaking which begins to manufacture or produce any article or thing on or after the 1st day of April, 1994, its exports of such articles and things are not less than seventy-five per cent of the total sales thereof during the previous year;

  (ii) It is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence :

Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of any undertaking which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

(iii) it is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose.

 Explanation : The provisions of Explanation 1 and

Explanation 2 to sub-section (2) of section 80-I shall apply for the purposes of clause (iii) of this sub-section as they apply for the purposes of clause (ii) of that sub-section.

 (3) The profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1) shall not be included in the total income of the assessee in respect of any consecutive assessment years, falling within a period of eight years beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things, specified by the assessee at his option :

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be construed to extend the aforesaid five assessment years to cover any period after the expiry of the said period of eight years.

 (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, in computing the total income of the assessee of the previous year relevant to the assessment year immediately succeeding the last of the relevant assessment years, or of any previous year relevant to any subsequent assessment year, -

(i) Section 32, section 32A, section 33 and clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36 shall apply as if every allowance or deduction referred to therein and relating to or allowable for any of the relevant assessment years, in relation to any building, machinery, plant or furniture used for the purposes of the business of the undertaking in the previous year relevant to such assessment year or any expenditure incurred for the purposes of such business in such previous year had been given full effect to for that assessment year itself and accordingly sub-section (2) of section 32, clause (ii) of sub-section (3) of section 32A, clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of section 33 or the second proviso to clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36, as the case may be, shall not apply in relation to any such allowance or deduction;

(ii) No loss referred to in sub-section (1) of section 72 or sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) of section 74, in so far as such loss relates to the business of the undertaking, shall be carried forward or set off where such loss relates to any of the relevant assessment years;

 (iii) No deduction shall be allowed under section 80HH or section 80HHA or section 80-I [ 319ab or section 80-IA 319ab ][ 319e or section 80-IB 319e ] in relation to the profits and gains of the undertaking; and

(iv) In computing the depreciation allowance under section 32, the written down value of any asset used for the purposes of the business of the undertaking shall be computed as if the assessee had claimed and been actually allowed the deduction in respect of depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

(5) Where the undertaking has begun to manufacture or produce articles or things in any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing before the 1st day of April, 1989, the assessee may, at his option, before the due date for furnishing the return of his income under sub-section (1) of section 139 for the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989, furnish to the Assessing Officer a declaration in writing that the provisions of sub-section (1) may be made applicable to him for any five consecutive assessment years falling within a period of eight years beginning with the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989, and if he does so, then, the provisions of sub-section (1) shall apply to him for each of such assessment years and the provisions of sub-section (4) shall also apply in computing the total income of the assessee for the assessment year immediately succeeding the last of such assessment years and any subsequent assessment year.

(6) The provisions of sub-section (8) and sub-section (9) of section 80-I shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the undertaking referred to in this section as they apply for the purposes of the industrial undertaking referred to in section 80-I.

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, where the assessee, before the due date for furnishing the return of his income under sub-section (1) of section 139, furnishes to the Assessing Officer a declaration in writing that the provisions of this section may not be made applicable to him, the provisions of this section shall not apply to him for any of the relevant assessment years.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, -

(i) “Hundred per cent export-oriented undertaking” means an undertaking which has been approved as a hundred per cent export-oriented undertaking by the Board appointed in this behalf by the Central Government in exercise of the powers conferred by section 14 of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (65 of 1951), and the rules made under that Act;

 (ii) “Relevant assessment years” means the ten consecutive assessment years referred to in sub-section

 (iii) “Manufacture” includes any -

 (a) Process, or

(b) Assembling, or

(c) Recording of programmes on any disc, tape, perforated media or other information storage device;

 (iv) “Produce”, in relation to any article or thing referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (2) includes production of computer programmes 319bb;

Section 10C. SPECIAL PROVISION IN RESPECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS IN NORTH-EASTERN REGION.

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any profits and gains derived by an assessee from an industrial undertaking, which has begun or begins to manufacture or produce any article or thing on or after the 1st day of April, 1998 in any Integrated Infrastructure Development Centre or Industrial Growth Centre located in the North-Eastern Region (hereafter in this section referred to as the industrial undertaking) shall not be included in the total income of the assessee.

 (2) This section applies to any industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) it is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction of, a business already in existence :

Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of any industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re- establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

(ii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose.

Explanation. – The provisions of Explanation 1 and

Explanation 2 to sub- section (3) of section 80-IA shall apply for the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section as they apply for the purposes of clause (ii) of that sub-section.

 (3) The profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1) shall not be included in the total income of the assessee in respect of ten consecutive assessment years beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, in computing the total income of the assessee of any previous year relevant to any subsequent assessment year, -

 (i) Section 32, section 35 and clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36 shall apply as if deduction referred to therein and relating to or allowable for any of the relevant assessment years, in relation to any building, machinery, plant or furniture used for the purposes of the business of the industrial undertaking in the previous year relevant to such assessment year or any expenditure incurred for the purposes of such business in such previous year had been given full effect to for that assessment year itself and, accordingly, sub- section (2) of section 32, sub-section (4) of section 35 or the second proviso to clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36, as the case may be, shall not apply in relation to any such deduction;

(ii) No loss referred to in sub-section (1) of section 72 or sub- section (1) or sub-section (3) of section 74, in so far as such loss relates to the business of the industrial undertaking, shall be carried forward or set off where such loss relates to any of the relevant assessment years;

 (iii) No deduction shall be allowed under section 80HH or section 80HHA or section 80-I or section 80-IA or section 80-IB or section 80JJA in relation to the profits and gains of the industrial undertakings; and

 (iv) In computing the depreciation allowance under section 32, the written down value of any asset used for the purposes of the business of the industrial undertaking shall be computed as if the assessee had claimed and been actually allowed the deduction in respect of depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

(5) The provisions of sub-section (8) and sub-section (10) of section 80-IA shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the industrial undertaking referred to in this section as they apply for the purposes of the industrial undertaking referred to in section 80-IA or section 80-IB, as the case may be.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, where the assessee before the due date for furnishing the return of his income under sub-section (1) of section 139, furnishes to the Assessing Officer a declaration in writing that the provisions of this section may not be made applicable to him, the provisions of this section shall not apply to him in any of the relevant assessment years.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Integrated Infrastructure Development Centre” means such centres located in the States of the North-Eastern Region, which the Central Government, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify for the purposes of this section;

(ii) “Industrial Growth Centre” means such centres located in the States of the North-Eastern Region, which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify for the purposes of this section; (iii) “North-Eastern Region” means the region comprising the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura;

(iv) “Relevant assessment years” means the ten consecutive years beginning with the year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things.

Section 11. INCOME FROM PROPERTY HELD FOR CHARITABLE OR RELIGIOUS PURPOSES.

 (1) 320 Subject to the provisions of sections 60 to 63, the following income shall not be included in the total income of the previous year of the person in receipt of the income -

 (a) Income 322 derived from property held under trust wholly for charitable or religious purposes, to the extent to which such income is applied to such purposes in India; and, where any such income is accumulated or set apart for application to such purposes in India, to the extent to which the income so accumulated or set apart is not in excess of twenty-five per cent of the income from such property;

(b) Income derived from property held under trust in part only for such purposes, the trust having been created before the commencement of this Act, to the extent to which such income is applied to such purposes in India; and, where any such income is finally set apart for application to such purposes in India, to the extent to which the income so set apart is not in excess of twenty-five per cent of the income from such property;

 (c) Income from property held under trust -

(i) Created on or after the 1st day of April, 1952, for a charitable purpose which tends to promote international welfare in which India is interested, to the extent to which such income is applied to such purposes outside India, and

(ii) For charitable or religious purposes, created before the 1st day of April, 1952, to the extent to which such income is applied to such purposes outside India :

Provided that the Board, by general or special order, has directed in either case that it shall not be included in the total income of the person in receipt of such income;

(d) Income in the form of voluntary contributions made with a specific direction that they shall form part of the corpus of the trust or institution.

Explanation : For the purposes of clauses (a) and (b), -

(1) In computing the twenty-five per cent of the income which may be accumulated or set apart, any such voluntary contributions as are referred to in section 12 shall be deemed to be part of the income;

 (2) If, in the previous year, the income applied to charitable or religious purposes in India falls short of seventy-five per cent of the income derived during that year from property held under trust, or, as the case may be, held under trust in part, by any amount - (i) for the reasons that the whole or any part of the income has not been received during that year, or

(ii) For any other reason, then -

(a) In the case referred to in sub-clause (i), so much of the income applied to such purposes in India during the previous year in which the income is received or during the previous year immediately following as does not exceed the said amount, and

 (b) In the case referred to in sub-clause (ii), so much of the income applied to such purposes in India during theprevious year immediately following the previous year inwhich the income was derived as does not exceed the said amount, may, at the option of the person in receipt of the income (such option to be exercised in writing before the expiry of the time allowed under sub-section (1) of section 139 for furnishing the return of income) be deemed to be income applied to such purposes during the previous year in which the income was derived; and the income so deemed to have been applied shall not be taken into account in calculating the amount of incomeapplied to such purposes, in the case referred to insub-clause (i), during the previous year in which the income is received or during the previous year immediately following, as the case may be, and, in the case referred to in sub-clause (ii), during the previous year immediately following the previous year in which the income was derived.

(1A) For the purposes of sub-section (1), - (a) where a capital asset, being property held under trust wholly for charitable or religious purposes, is transferred and the whole or any part of the net consideration is utilised for acquiring another capital asset to be so held, then, the capital gain arising from the transfer shall be deemed to have been applied to charitable or religiouspurposes to the extent specified hereunder, namely :- (i) where the whole of the net consideration is utilised in acquiring the new capital asset, the whole of such capital gain;

 (ii) Where only a part of the net consideration is utilised for acquiring the new capital asset, so much of such capital gain as is equal to the amount, if any, by which the amount so utilised exceeds the cost of the transferred asset;

(b) Where a capital asset, being property held under trust in part only for such purposes, is transferred and the whole or any part of the net consideration is utilised for acquiring another capital asset to be so held, then, the appropriate fraction of the capital gain arising from the transfer shall be deemed to have been applied to charitable or religious purposes to the extent specified hereunder, namely :-

(i) Where the whole of the net consideration is utilised in acquiring the new capital asset, the whole of the appropriate fraction of such capital gain;

(ii) In any other case, so much of the appropriate fraction of the capital gain as is equal to the amount, if any, by which the appropriate fraction of the amount utilised for acquiring the new asset exceeds the appropriate fraction of the cost of the transferred asset.

 Explanation : In this sub-section, - (i) “appropriate fraction” means the fraction which represents the extent to which the income derived from the capital asset transferred was immediately before such transfer applicable to charitable or religious purposes;

 (ii) “Cost of the transferred asset” means the aggregate of the cost of acquisition (as ascertained for the purposes of sections 48 and 49) of the capital asset which is the subject of the transfer and the cost of any improvement thereto within the meaning assigned to that expression in sub-clause (b) of clause (1) of section 55;

(iii) “Net consideration” means the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset as reduced by any expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer.

(1B) Where any income in respect of which an option is exercised under clause (2) of the Explanation to sub-section (1) is not applied to charitable or religious purposes in India during the period referred to in sub-clause (a) or, as the case may be, sub-clause (b), of the said clause, then, such income shall be deemed to be the income of the person in receipt thereof -

(a) In the case referred to in sub-clause (i) of the said clause, of the previous year immediately following the previous year in which the income was received; or

 (b) In the case referred to in sub-clause (ii) of the said clause, of the previous year immediately following the previous year in which the income was derived.

(2) Where seventy-five per cent of the income referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) read with the Explanation to that sub-section is not applied, or is not deemed to have been applied, to charitable or religious purposes in India during the previous year but is accumulated or set apart, either in whole or in part, for application to such purposes in India, such income so accumulated or set apart shall not be included in the total income of the previous year of the person in receipt of the income, provided the following conditions are complied with, namely :

(a) Such person specifies, by notice in writing given to the [Assessing Officer] in the prescribed 334 manner, the purpose for which the income is being accumulated or set apart and the period for which the income is to be accumulated or set apart, which shall in no case exceed ten years;

 (b) The money so accumulated or set apart is invested or deposited in the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5).

Provided that in computing the period of ten years referred to in clause (a), the period during which the income could not be applied for the purpose for which it is so accumulated or set apart, due to an order or injunction of any Court, shall be excluded.

 (3) Any income referred to in sub-section (2) which - (a) is applied to purposes other than charitable or religious purposes as aforesaid or ceases to be accumulated or set apart for application thereto, or

 (b) ceases to remain invested or deposited in any of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5),

 (c) Is not utilised for the purpose for which it is so accumulated or set apart during the period referred to in clause (a) of that sub-section or in the year immediately following the expiry thereof, shall be deemed to be the income of such person of the previous year in which it is so applied or ceases to be so accumulated or set apart or ceases to remain so invested or deposited or, as the case may be, of the previous year immediately following the expiry of the period aforesaid.

(3A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), where due to circumstances beyond the control of the person in receipt of the income, any income invested or deposited in accordance with the provisions of clause (b) of sub-section (2) cannot be applied for the purpose for which it was accumulated or set apart, the [Assessing Officer] may, on an application made to him in this behalf, allow such person to apply such income for such other charitable or religious purpose in India as is specified in the application by such person and as is in conformity with the objects of the trust; and thereupon the provisions of sub-section (3) shall apply as if the purpose specified by such person in the application under this sub-section were a purpose specified in the notice given to the [Assessing Officer] under clause (a) of sub-section (2).

 (4) For the purposes of this section “property held under trust” includes a business undertaking so held, and where a claim is made that the income of any such undertaking shall not be included in the total income of the persons in receipt thereof, the [Assessing Officer] shall have power to determine the income of such undertaking in accordance with the provisions of this Act relating to assessment; and where any income so determined is in excess of the income as shown in the accounts of the undertaking, such excess shall be deemed to be applied to purposes other than charitable or religious purposes.

(4A) Sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) or sub-section (3A) shall not apply in relation to any income of a trust or an institution, being profits and gains of business, unless the business is incidental to the attainment of the objectives of the trust or, as the case may be, institution, and separate books of account are maintained by such trust or institution in respect of such business.

(5) The forms and modes of investing or depositing the money referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (2) shall be the following, namely :- (i) 343 investment in savings certificates as defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Government Savings Certificates Act, 1959 (46 of 1959), and any other securities or certificates issued by the Central Government under the Small Savings Schemes of that Government;

 (ii) Deposit in any account with the Post Office Savings Bank;

(iii) Deposit in any account with a scheduled bank or a co-operative society engaged in carrying on the business of banking (including a co-operative land mortgage bank or a co-operative land development bank).

Explanation : In this clause, “scheduled bank” means the State Bank of India constituted under the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955), a subsidiary bank as defined in the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959 (38 of 1959), a corresponding new bank constituted under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970 (5 of 1970), or under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1980 (40 of 1980), or any other bank being a bank included in the Second Schedule to the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

(iv) Investment in units of the Unit Trust of India established under the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963);

(v) Investment in any security for money created and issued by the Central Government or a State Government;

 (vi) Investment in debentures issued by, or on behalf of, any company or corporation both the principal whereof and the interest whereon are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Central Government or by a State Government;

(vii) Investment or deposit in any [ 344 public sector company 344 ];

(viii) Deposits with or investment in any bonds issued by a financial corporation which is engaged in providing long-term finance for industrial development in India and which is approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

 (ix) Deposits with or investment in any bonds issued by a public company formed and registered in India with the main object of carrying on the business of providing long term finance for construction or purchase of houses in India for residential purposes and which is approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

(x) Investment in immovable property.

Explanation : “Immovable property” does not include any machinery or plant (other than machinery or plant installed in a building for the convenient occupation of the building) even though attached to, or permanently fastened to, anything attached to the earth;

 (xi) Deposits with the Industrial Development Bank of India established under the Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964 (18 of 1964);

(xii) Any other form or mode of investment or deposit as may be prescribed 347.

Section 12. INCOME OF TRUSTS OR INSTITUTIONS FROM CONTRIBUTIONS.

 Any voluntary contributions received by a trust created wholly for charitable or religious purposes or by an institution established wholly for such purposes (not being contributions made with a specific direction that they shall form part of the corpus of the trust or institution) shall for the purposes of section 11 be deemed to be income derived from property held under trust wholly for charitable or religious purposes and the provisions of that section and section 13 shall apply accordingly.

Section 12A. CONDITIONS AS TO REGISTRATION OF TRUSTS, ETC.

The provisions of section 11 and section 12 shall not apply in relation to the income of any trust or institution unless the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :-

(a) the person in receipt of the income has made an application for registration of the trust or institution in the prescribed form and in the prescribed manner to the Commissioner before the 1st day of July, 1973, or before the expiry of a period of one year from the date of the creation of the trust or the establishment of the institution, [Whichever is later and such trust or institution is registered under section 12AA] :

 Provided that where an application for registration of the trust or institution is made after the expiry of the period aforesaid, the provisions of sections 11 and 12 shall apply in relation to the income of such trust or institution, -

(i) From the date of the creation of the trust or the establishment of the institution if the Commissioner is, for reasons to be recorded in writing, satisfied that the person in receipt of the income was prevented from making the application before the expiry of the period aforesaid for sufficient reasons;

(ii) From the first day of the financial year in which the application is made, if the Chief Commissioner or Commissioner is not so satisfied;

(b) Where the total income of the trust or institution as computed under this Act without giving effect to the provisions of section 11 and section 12 exceeds [fifty thousand] rupees in any previous year, the accounts of the trust or institution for that year have been audited byan accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the person in receipt ofthe income furnishes along with the return of income for the relevant assessment year the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed 350

Section 12AA. PROCEDURE FOR REGISTRATION.

(1) The Commissioner, on receipt of an application for registration of a trust or institution made under clause (a) of section 12A, shall - (a) Call for such documents or information from the trust or institution as he thinks necessary in order to satisfy himself about the genuineness of activities of the trust or institution and may also make such a inquiries as he may deem necessary in this behalf; and

 (b) After satisfying himself about the objects of the trust or institution genuineness of its activities, he - (i) shall pass an order in writing registering the trust or institution;

(ii) Shall, if he is not so satisfied, pass an order in writing refusing to register the trust or institution, and a copy of such order shall be sent to the applicant :

Provided that no order under sub-clause (ii) shall be passed unless the applicant has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(1A) All applications, pending before the Chief Commissioner on which no order has been passed under clause (b) of sub-section (1) before the 1st day of June, 1999, shall stand transferred on that day to the Commissioner and the Commissioner may proceed with such applications under that sub-section from the stage at which they were on that day.

(2) Every order granting or refusing registration under clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall be passed before the expiry of six months from the end of the month in which the application was received under clause (a) of section 12A.

Section 13. SECTION 11 NOT TO APPLY IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Nothing contained in section 11 or section 12 shall operate so as to exclude from the total income of the previous year of the person in receipt thereof – (a) any part of the income from the property held under a trust for private religious purposes which does not enure for the benefit of the public;

 (b) In the case of a trust for charitable purposes or a charitable institution created or established after the commencement of this Act, any income thereof if the trust or institution is created or established for the benefit of any particular religious community or caste;

(c) In the case of a trust for charitable or religious purposes or a charitable or religious institution, any income thereof -

(i) If such trust or institution has been created or established after the commencement of this Act and under the terms of the trust or the rules governing the institution, any part of such income enures, or

(ii) If any part of such income or any property of the trust or institution (whenever created or established) is during the previous year used or applied, directly or indirectly for the benefit of any person referred to in sub-section (3) :

 Provided that in the case of a trust or institution created or established before the commencement of this Act, the provisions of sub-clause (ii) shall not apply to any use or application, whether directly or indirectly, of any part of such income or any property of the trust or institution for the benefit of any person referred to in sub-section (3), if such use or application is by way of compliance with a mandatory term of the trust or a mandatory rule governing the institution :

Provided further that in the case of a trust for religious purposes or a religious institution (whenever created or established) or a trust for charitable purposes or a charitable institution created or established before the commencement of this Act, the provisions of sub-clause (ii) shall not apply to any use or application, whether directly or indirectly, of any part of such income or any property of the trust or institution for the benefit of any person referred to in sub-section (3) in so far as such use or application relates to any period before the 1st day of June, 1970;

 (d) 355 in the case of a trust for charitable or religious purposes or a charitable or religious institution, any income thereof, if for any period during the previous year -

 (i) Any funds of the trust or institution are invested or deposited after the 28th day of February, 1983 otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified insub-section (5) of section 11; or

 (ii) Any funds of the trust or institution invested or deposited before the 1st day of March, 1983, otherwise than in any one or more of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11 continue to remain so invested or deposited after the 30th day of November, 1983; or

 (iii) Any shares in a company [not being a Government company 356 as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), or a corporation established by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act, are held by the trust or institution after the 30th day of November, 1983 :

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply in relation to -

(i) Any assets held by the trust or institution where such assets form part of the corpus of the trust or institution as on the 1st day of June, 1973;

(ia) Any accretion to the shares, forming part of the corpus mentioned in clause (i), by way of bonus shares allotted to the trust or institution;

(ii) Any assets (being debentures issued by, or on behalf of, any company or corporation) acquired by the trust or institution before the 1st day of March, 1983;

(iia) Any asset, not being an investment or deposit in any of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11, where such asset is not held by the trust or institution, otherwise than in any of the forms or modes specified in sub-section (5) of section 11, after the expiry of one year from the end of the previous year in which such asset is acquired or the 31st day of March,1993, whichever is later;

 (iii) Any funds representing the profits and gains of business, being profits and gains of any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1984 or any subsequent assessment year.

 Explanation : Where the trust or institution has any other income in addition to profits and gains of business, the provisions of clause (iii) of this proviso shall not apply unless the trust or institution maintains separate books of account in respect of such business.

 Explanation : For the purposes of sub-clause (ii) of clause (c), in determining whether any part of the income or any property of any trust or institution is during the previous year used or applied, directly or indirectly, for the benefit of any person referred to in sub-section (3), in so far as such use or application relates to any period before the 1st day of July, 1972, no regard shall be had to the amendments made to this section by section 7 [other than sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) thereof] of the Finance Act, 1972.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the [Provisions of clause (c) and clause (d)] of sub-section (1), the income or the property of the trust or institution or any part of such income or property shall, for the purposes of that clause, be deemed to have been used or applied for the benefit of a person referred to in sub-section (3), -

(a) If any part of the income or property of the trust or institution is, or continues to be, lent to any person referred to in sub-section (3) for any period during the previous year without either adequate security or adequate interest or both;

(b) If any land, building or other property of the trust or institution is, or continues to be, made available for the use of any person referred to in sub-section (3), for any period during the previous year without charging adequate rent or other compensation;

 (c) If any amount is paid by way of salary, allowance or otherwise during the previous year to any person referred to in sub-section (3) out of the resources of the trust or institution for services rendered by that person to such trust or institution and the amount so paid is in excess of what may be reasonably paid for such services;

(d) If the services of the trust or institution are made available to any person referred to in sub-section (3) during the previous year without adequate remuneration or other compensation;

 (e) If any share, security or other property is purchased by or on behalf of the trust or institution from any person referred to in sub-section (3) during the previous year for consideration which is more than adequate;

(f) If any share, security or other property is sold by or on behalf of the trust or institution to any person referred to in sub-section (3) during the previous year for consideration which is less than adequate;

 (g) If any income or property of the trust or institution is diverted during the previous year in favour of any person referred to in sub-section (3) :

Provided that this clause shall not apply where the income, or the value of the property or, as the case may be, the aggregate of the income and the value of the property, so diverted does not exceed one thousand rupees; 359 ]

(h) If any funds of the trust or institution are, or continue to remain, invested for any period during the previous year (not being a period before the 1st day of January, 1971) in any concern in which any person referred to in sub-section (3) has a substantial interest.

(3) The persons referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (1) and sub-section (2) are the following, namely :-

(a) The author of the trust or the founder of the institution;

(b) Any person who has made a substantial contribution to the trust or institution, that is to say, any person whose total contribution upto the end of the relevant previous year exceeds [fifty thousand] rupees;

 (c) Where such author, founder or person is a Hindu undivided family, a member of the family;

 (cc) Any trustee of the trust or manager (by whatever name called) of the institution;

 (d) Any relative of any such author, founder, person, [member, trustee or manager] as aforesaid;

 (e) Any concern in which any of the persons referred to in clauses (a), (b), [(c), (cc)] and (d) has substantial interest.

 (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (c) of sub-section (1) [But without prejudice to the provisions contained in clause (d) of that sub-section, in a case where] the aggregate of the funds of the trust or institution invested in a concern in which any person referred to in sub-section (3) has a substantial interest, does not exceed five per cent of the capital of that concern, the exemption under [Section 11 or section 12] shall not be denied in relation to any income other than the income arising to the trust or the institution from such investment, by reason only that the [Funds of the trust or the institution] have been invested in a concern in which such person has a substantial interest.

 (5) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (d) of sub-section (1), where any assets (being debentures issued by, or on behalf of, any company or corporation) are acquired by the trust or institution after the 28th day of February, 1983 but before the 25th day of July, 1991, the exemption under section 11 or section 12 shall not be deniedin relation to any income other than the income arising to the trust or the institution from such assets, by reason only that the funds of the trust or the institution have been invested in such assets if such funds do not continue to remain so invested in such assets after the 31st day of March, 1992.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of sections 11, 12, 12A and this section, “trust” includes any other legal obligation and for the purposes of this section “relative”, in relation to an individual, means -

 (i) Spouse of the individual;

(ii) Brother or sister of the individual;

(iii) Brother or sister of the spouse of the individual;

(iv) Any lineal ascendant or descendant of the individual;

(v) Any lineal ascendant or descendant of the spouse of the individual;

(vi) Spouse of a person referred to in sub-clause (ii), sub-clause (iii), sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v);

 (vii) Any lineal descendant of a brother or sister of either the individual or of the spouse of the individual.

 Explanation 2 : A trust or institution created or established for the benefit of Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes, Scheduled Tribes or women and children shall not be deemed to be a trust or institution created or established for the benefit of a religious community or caste within the meaning of clause (b) of sub-section (1).

  Explanation 3 : For the purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to have a substantial interest in a concern, -

(i) In a case where the concern is a company, if its shares (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a further right to participate in profits) carrying not less than twenty per cent of the voting power are, at any time during the previous year, owned beneficially by such person or partly by such person and partly by one or more of the other persons referred to in sub-section (3);

 (ii) In the case of any other concern, if such person is entitled, or such person and one or more of the other persons referred to in sub-section (3) are entitled in the aggregate, at any time during the previous year, to not less than twenty per cent of the profits of such concern.

Section 13A. SPECIAL PROVISION RELATING TO INCOMES OF POLITICAL PARTIES.

Any income of a political party which is chargeable under the head ”Income from house property” or “Income from other sources” or any income by way of voluntary contributions received by a political party from any person shall not be included in the total income of the previous year of such political party :

Provided that - (a) Such political party keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as would enable the [Assessing Officer] to properly deduce its income therefrom;

 (b) In respect of each such voluntary contribution in excess of ten thousand rupees, such political party keeps and maintains a record of such contribution and the name and address of the person who has made such contribution; and

(c) The accounts of such political party are audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, “political party” means an association or body of individual citizens of India registered with the Election Commission of India as a political party under paragraph 3 of the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968, and includes a political party deemed to be registered with that Commission under the proviso to sub-paragraph (2) of that paragraph.

Section 14 . HEADS OF INCOME.

Save as otherwise provided by this Act, all income shall, for the purposes of charge of income-tax and computation of total income, be classified under the following heads of income -

 A. – Salaries.

C. – Income from house property.

D. – Profits and gains of business or profession.

E. – Capital gains.

F. – Income from other sources.

Section 15. SALARIES. 376 .

The following income shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Salaries” :- (a) Any salary due from an employer 377 or a former employer to an assessee in the previous year, whether paid or not;

 (b) Any salary paid or allowed to him in the previous year by or on behalf of an employer or a former employer though not due or before it became due to him;

 (c) Any arrears of salary paid or allowed to him in the previous year by or on behalf of an employer or a former employer, if not charged to income-tax for any earlier previous year.

Explanation 1 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where any salary paid in advance is included in the total income of any person for any previous year it shall not be included again in the total income of the person when the salary becomes due.

 Explanation 2 : Any salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called, due to, or received by, a partner of a firm from the firm shall not be regarded as “salary” for the purposes of this section.

Section 16. DEDUCTIONS FROM SALARIES.

The income chargeable under the head “Salaries” shall be computed after making the following deductions, namely :-

 (i) In the case of an assessee whose income from salary, before allowing a deduction under the clause, - (a) Does not exceed one lakh rupees, a deduction of a sum equal to thirty-three and one-third per cent of the salary or twenty-five thousand rupees, whichever is less;

(b) Exceeds one lakh rupees but does not exceed five lakh rupees, a deduction of a sum of twenty thousand rupees.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, where salary is due from, or paid or allowed by, more than one employer, the deduction under this clause shall be computed with reference to the aggregate salary due, paid or allowed to the assessee and shall in no case exceed the amount specified under this clause;

(ii) A deduction in respect of any allowance in the nature of an entertainment allowance specifically granted to the assessee by his employer -

(a) In the case of an assessee who is in receipt of a salary from the Government, a sum equal to one-fifth of his salary (exclusive of any allowance, benefit or other perquisite) or five thousand rupees, whichever is less; and

(b) In the case of any other assessee who is in receipt of such entertainment allowance and has been continuously in receipt of such entertainment allowance regularly from his present employer from a date before the 1st day of April, 1955, the amount of such entertainment allowance regularly received by the assessee from his present employer in any previous year ending before the 1st day of April, 1955, or a sum equal to one-fifth of his salary (exclusive of any allowance, benefit or other perquisite) or seven thousand five hundred rupees, whichever is the least;

(iii) A deduction of any sum paid by the assessee on account of a tax on employment within the meaning of clause (2) of article 276 of the Constitution, leviable by or under any law.

Section 17. “SALARY”, “PERQUISITE” AND “PROFITS IN LIEU OF SALARY” DEFINED.

 For the purposes of sections 15 and 16 and of this section, -

(1) “Salary” includes -

(i) Wages;

(ii) Any annuity or pension;

(iii) Any gratuity;

(iv) Any fees, commissions, perquisites or profits in lieu of or in addition to any salary or wages;

(v) Any advance of salary;

(va) Any payment received by an employee in respect of any period of leave not availed of by him; 388 ]

 (vi) The annual accretion to the balance at the credit of an employee participating in a recognised provident fund, to the extent to which it is chargeable to tax under rule 6 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule; and

 (vii) The aggregate of all sums that are comprised in the transferred balance as referred to in sub-rule (2) of rule 11 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule of an employee participating in a recognised provident fund, to the extent to which it is chargeable to tax under sub-rule (4) thereof;

 (2) “Perquisite” includes -

(i) The value of rent-free accommodation provided to the assessee by his employer;

 (ii) The value of any concession in the matter of rent respecting any accommodation provided to the assessee by his employer;

(iii) The value of any benefit or amenity granted or provided free of cost or at concessional rate in any of the following cases :-

(a) By a company to an employee who is a director thereof;

(b) By a company to an employee being a person who has a substantial interest in the company;

(c) By any employer (including a company) to an employee to whom the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sub-clause do not apply and whose income under the head “Salaries” (whether due from, or paid or allowed by, one or more employers), exclusive of the value of all benefits or amenities not provided for by way of monetary payment, exceeds twenty-four thousand rupees.

Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the use of any vehicle provided by a company or an employer for journey by the assessee from his residence to his office or other place of work, or from such office or place to his residence, shall not be regarded as a benefit or amenity granted or provided to him free of cost or at concessional rate for the purposes of this sub-clause.

  (iiia) The value of any specified security allotted or transferred, directly or indirectly, by any person free of cost or at concessional rate, to an individual who is or has been in employment of that person :

 Provided that in a case where allotment or transfer of specified securities is made in pursuance of an option exercised by an individual, the value of the specified securities shall be taxable in the previous year in which such option is exercised by such individual.

 Explanation – For the purposes of this clause, - (a) “Cost” means the amount actually paid for acquiring specified securities and where no money has been paid, the cost shall be taken as nil;

(b) “Specified security” means the securities as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956) and includes employees’ stock option and sweat equity shares;

 (c) “Sweat equity shares” means equity shares issued by a company to its employees or directors at a discount or for consideration other than cash for providing know-how or making available rights in the nature of intellectual property rights or value additions, by whatever name called; and

 (d) “Value” means the difference between the fair market value and the cost for acquiring specified securities.

 (iv) Any sum paid by the employer in respect of any obligation which but for such payment, would have been payable by the assessee;

 (v) Any sum payable by the employer, whether directly or through a fund, other than a recognised provident fund or an approved superannuation fund or a Deposit-linked Insurance Fund established under section 3G of the Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1948 (46 of 1948), or, as the case may be, section 6C of the Employees’

Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952), to effect an assurance on the life of the assessee or to effect a contract for an annuity;

 Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to, – (i) The value of any medical treatment provided to an employee or any member of his family in any hospital maintained by the employer;

 (ii) Any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure actually incurred by the employee on his medical treatment or treatment of any member of his family -

(a) In any hospital maintained by the Government or any local authority or any other hospital approved by the Government for the purposes of medical treatment of its employees;

 (b) In respect of the prescribed diseases or ailments in any hospital approved by the Chief Commissioner having regard to the prescribed guidelines :

Provided that, in a case falling in sub-clause (b), the employee shall attach with his return of income a certificate from the hospital specifying the disease or ailment for which medical treatment was required and the receipt for the amount paid to the hospital;

(iii) Any portion of the premium paid by an employer in relation to an employee, to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of such employee under any scheme approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (ib) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

(iv) Any sum paid by the employer in respect of any premium paid by the employee to effect or to keep in force an insurance on his health or the health of any member of his family under any scheme approved by the Central Government for the purposes of section 80D;

 (v) Any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure actually incurred by the employee on his medical treatment or treatment of any member of his family [other than the treatment referred to in clauses (i) and

(ii)]; so, however, that such sum does not exceed five thousand rupees, in the previous year, in the case of the employee and further five thousand rupees in the case of his family;

(vi) Any expenditure incurred by the employer on - (1) medical treatment of the employee, or any member of the family of such employee, outside India;

(2) Travel and stay abroad of the employee or any member of the family of such employee for medical treatment;

 (3) Travel and stay abroad of one attendant who accompanies the patient in connection with such treatment, subject to the condition that -

 (A) The expenditure on medical treatment and stay abroad shall be excluded from perquisite only to the extent permitted by the Reserve Bank of India; and

 (B) The expenditure on travel shall be excluded from perquisite only in the case of an employee whose gross total income, as computed before including therein the said expenditure, does not exceed two lakh rupees;

(vii) Any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure actually incurred by the employee for any of the purposes specified in clause (vi) subject to the conditions specified in or under that clause.

 Explanation : For the purposes of clause (2), - (i) “Hospital” includes a dispensary or a clinic or a nursing home;

(ii) “Family”, in relation to an individual, shall have the same meaning as in clause (5) of section 10; and

 (iii) “Gross total income” shall have the same meaning as in clause (5) of section 80B;

 (3) “Profits in lieu of salary” includes -

 (i) The amount of any compensation due to or received by an assessee from his employer or former employer at or in connection with the termination of his employment the modification of the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 (ii) Any payment other than any payment referred to in clause (10), clause (10A), clause (10B), clause (11), clause (12), clause (13) or clause (13A) of section (10), due to or received by an assessee from an employer or a former employer or from a provident or other fund, to the extent to which it does not consist of contributions by the assessee or interest on such contributions or any sum received under a Keyman insurance policy including the sum allocated by way of bonus on such policy.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, the expression “Keyman insurance policy” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (10D) of section 10.

Section 18. OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1988, W.E.F. 1-4-1989

Section 19. OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1988, W.E.F. 1-4-1989

Section 20. 20 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1988, W.E.F. 1-4-1989.

20 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1988, W.E.F. 1-4-1989.

Section 21

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1988, W.E.F. 1-4-1989

Section 22. INCOME FROM HOUSE PROPERTY.

The annual value of property consisting of any buildings or lands appurtenant thereto of which the assessee is the owner 400 , other than such portions of such property as he may occupy for the purposes of any business or profession carried on by him the profits of which are chargeable to income-tax, shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Income from house property”.

Section 23. ANNUAL VALUE HOW DETERMINED.

(1) For the purposes of section 22, the annual value of any property shall be deemed to be -

(a) The sum for which the property might reasonably be expected to let from year to year; or

(b) Where the property is let and the annual rent received or receivable by the owner in respect thereof is in excess of the sum referred to in clause (a), the amount so received or receivable :

 Provided that where the property is in the occupation of a tenant, the taxes levied by any local authority in respect of the property shall, to the extent such taxes are borne by the owner, be deducted (irrespective of the previous year in which the liability to pay such taxes was incurred by the owner according to the method of accounting regularly employed by him) in determining the annual value of the property of that previous year in which such taxes are actually paid by him :

 Provided further that the annual value as determined under this sub-section shall, - (a) In the case of a building comprising one or more residential units, the erection of which is begun after the 1st day of April, 1961, and completed before the 1st day of April, 1970, for a period of three years from the date of completion of the building, be reduced by a sum equal to the aggregate of -

(i) In respect of any residential unit, whose annual value as so determined does not exceed six hundred rupees, the amount of such annual value;

(ii) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined exceeds six hundred rupees, an amount of six hundred rupees;

 (b) In the case of a building comprising one or more residential units, the erection of which is begun after the 1st day of April, 1961, and completed after the 31st day of March, 1970, but before the 1st day of April, 1978, for a period of five years from the date of completion of the building, be reduced by a sum equal to aggregate of -

 (i) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined does not exceed one thousand two hundred rupees, the amount of such annual value;

 (ii) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined exceeds one thousand two hundred rupees, an amount of one thousand two hundred rupees;

 (c) In the case of a building comprising one or more residential units, the erection of which is completed after the 31st day of March, 1978 but before the 1st day of April, 1982, for a period of five years from the date of completion of the building, be reduced by a sum equal to the aggregate of -

(i) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined does not exceed two thousand four hundred rupees, the amount of such annual value;

 (ii) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined exceeds two thousand four hundred rupees, an amount of two thousand four hundred rupees;

 (d) In the case of a building comprising one or more residential units, the erection of which is completed after the 31st day of March, 1982 but

before the 1st day of April, 1992, for a period of five years from the date of completion of the building, be reduced by a sum equal to the aggregate of - (i) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined does not exceed three thousand six hundred rupees, the amount of such annual value;

(ii) In respect of any residential unit whose annual value as so determined exceeds three thousand six hundred rupees, an amount of three thousand six hundred rupees.

 Explanation: For the purposes of this sub-section, “annual rent” means - (a) In a case where the property is let throughout the previous year, the actual rent received or receivable by the owner in respect of such year; and

(b) In any other case, the amount which bears the same proportion to the amount of the actual rent received or receivable by the owner for the period for which the property is let, as the period of twelve months bears to such period.

Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where a deduction in respect of any taxes referred to in the first proviso to this sub-section is allowed in determining the annual value of the property in respect of any previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1984 or any earlier assessment year), no deduction shall be allowed under the first proviso in determining the annual value of the property in respect of the previous year in which such taxes are actually paid by the owner.

 (2) Where the property consists of - (a) A house or part of a house in the occupation of the owner for the purposes of his own residence, - (i) Which is not actually let during any part of the previous year and no other benefit therefrom is derived by the owner, the annual value of such house or part of the house shall be taken to be nil; (ii) Which is let during any part or parts of the previous year, that part of the annual value (annual value being determined in the same manner as if the property had been let) which is proportionate to the period during which the property is in the occupation of the owner for the purposes of his own residence, or, as the case may be, where such property is let out in parts, that portion of the annual value appropriate to any part which was occupied by the owner for his own residence, which is proportionate to the period during which such part is wholly occupied by him for his own residence shall be deducted in determining the annual value.

 Explanation :- The deduction under this sub-clause shall be made irrespective of whether the period during which the property or, as the case may be, part of the property was used for the residence of the owner precedes or follows the period during which it is let;

 (b) More than one house in the occupation of the owner for the purposes of his own residence, the provisions of clause (a) shall apply only in respect of one of such houses, which the assessee may, at his option, specify in this behalf;

(c) More than one house and such houses are in the occupation of the owner for the purposes of his own residence, the annual value of the house or houses, other than the house in respect of which the assessee has exercised an option under clause (b), shall be determined under sub-section (1) as if such house or houses had been let.

 Explanation :- Where any such residential unit as is referred to in the second proviso to sub-section (1) is in the occupation of the owner for the purposes of his own residence, nothing contained in that proviso shall apply in computing the annual value of that residential unit.

(3) Where the property referred to in sub-section (2) consists of one residential house only and it cannot actually be occupied by the owner by reason of the fact that owing to his employment, business or profession carried on at any other place, he has to reside at that other place in a building not belonging to him, the annual value of such house shall be taken to be nil :

 Provided that the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :-

(i) Such house is not actually let, and

(ii) No other benefit therefrom is derived by the owner.

Section 24. DEDUCTIONS FROM INCOME FROM HOUSE PROPERTY.

(1) Income chargeable under the head “Income from house property” shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), be computed after making the following deductions, namely :-

 (i) In respect of repairs of, and collection of rent from, the property, a sum equal to one-fourth of the annual value;

(ii) The amount of any premium paid to insure the property against risk of damage or destruction;

(iv) Where the property is subject to an annual charge, (not being a charge created by the assessee voluntarily or a capital charge), the amount of such charge;

(v) Where the property is subject to a ground rent, the amount of such ground rent;

 (vi) Where the property has been acquired, constructed, repaired, renewed or reconstructed with borrowed capital, the amount of any interest payable on such capital;

 Explanation : Where the property has been acquired or constructed with borrowed capital, the interest, if any, payable on such capital for the period prior to the previous year in which the property has been acquired or constructed, as reduced by any part thereof allowed as a deduction under any other provision of this Act, shall be deducted under this clause in equal instalments for the said previous year and for each of the four immediately succeeding previous years;

(vii) Any sums paid on account of land revenue or any other tax levied by the State Government in respect of the property;

(ix) Where the property is let and was vacant during a part of the year, that part of the annual value which is proportionate to the period during which the property is wholly unoccupied or, where the property is let out in parts, that portion of the annual value appropriate to any vacant part, which is proportionate to the period during which such part is wholly unoccupied.

Explanation : The deduction under this clause shall be made irrespective of whether the period during which the property or, as the case may be, part of the property was vacant precedes or follows the period during which it is let;

(x) Subject to such rules 421 as may be made in this behalf, the amount in respect of rent from property let to a tenant which the assessee cannot realise.

(2) No deduction shall be allowed under sub-section (1) In respect of property of the nature referred to in sub-clause (i) of clause (a) of sub-section (2), or sub-section (3) of section 23 :

 Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to the allowance of a deduction under clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of an amount not exceeding thirty thousand rupees in respect of the property of the nature referred to in sub-clause (i) of clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 23 or sub-section (3) of section 23.

 Provided further that where the property is acquired or constructed with capital borrowed on or after the 1st day of April, 1999 and such acquisition or construction is completed before the 1st day of April, 2001, the provisions of the first proviso shall have effect as if for the words “thirty thousand rupees”, the words “seventy-five thousand rupees” had been substituted.

 (3) The total amount deductible under sub-section (1) in respect of property of the nature referred to in sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 23 shall not exceed the annual value of the property as determined under that section.

Section 25. AMOUNTS NOT DEDUCTIBLE FROM INCOME FROM HOUSE PROPERTY.

Notwithstanding anything contained in section 24, any annual charge or interest chargeable under this Act which is payable outside India (not being interest on a loan issued for public subscription before the 1st day of April, 1938), on which tax has not been paid or deducted under Chapter XVII-B and in respect of which there is no person in India who may be treated as an agent under section 163 shall not be deducted in computing the income chargeable under the head “Income from house property”.

Section 25A. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR CASES WHERE UNREALISED RENT ALLOWED AS DEDUCTION IS REALISED SUBSEQUENTLY.

Where a deduction has been made under clause (x) of sub-section (1) of section 24 in the assessment for any year in respect of rent from property let to a tenant which the assessee cannot realise and subsequently during any previous year the assessee has realised any amount in respect of such rent, the amount so realised shall be deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Income from house property” and accordingly charged to income-tax (without making any deduction under section 23 or section 24) as the income of that previous year, whether the assessee is the owner of that property in that year or not.

Section 26. PROPERTY OWNED BY CO-OWNERS.

Where property consisting of building or buildings and lands appurtenant thereto is owned by two or more persons and their respective shares are definite and ascertainable, such persons shall not in respect of such property be assessed as an association of persons but the share of each such person in the income from the property as computed in accordance with sections 22 to 25 shall be included in his total income.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, in applying the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 23 for computing the share of each such person as is referred to in this section, such share shall be computed as if each such person is individually entitled to the relief provided in that sub-section.

Section 27. “OWNER OF HOUSE PROPERTY”, “ANNUAL CHARGE”, ETC., DEFINED.

For the purposes of sections 22 to 26 - (i) An individual who transfers otherwise than for adequate consideration any house property to his or her spouse, not being a transfer in connection with an agreement to live apart, or to a minor child not being a married daughter, shall be deemed to be the owner of the house property so transferred;

 (ii) The holder of an impartible estate shall be deemed to be the individual owner of all the properties comprised in the estate;

 (iii) A member of a co-operative society, company or other association of persons to whom a building or part thereof is allotted or leased under a house building scheme of the society, company or association, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the owner of that building or part thereof;

 (iiia) A person who is allowed to take or retain possession of any building or part thereof in part performance of a contract of the nature referred to in section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882), shall be deemed to be the owner of that building or part thereof;

(iiib) A person who acquires any rights (excluding any rights by way of a lease from month to month or for a period not exceeding one year) in or with respect to any building or part thereof by virtue of any such transaction as is referred to in clause (f) of section 269UA, shall be deemed to be the owner of that building or part thereof; 426 ]

 (iv) “Annual charge” means a charge to secure an annual liability, but does not include any tax in respect of property or income from property imposed by a local authority, or the Central or a State Government;

(v) “Capital charge” means a charge to secure the discharge of a liability of a capital nature;

 (vi) Taxes levied by a local authority in respect of any property shall be deemed to include service taxes levied by the local authority in respect of the property.

Section 28. PROFITS AND GAINS OF BUSINESS OR PROFESSION.

The following income shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”, - (i) The profits and gains of any business or profession which was carried on by the assessee at any time during the previous year;

(ii) Any compensation or other payment due to or received by, - (a) Any person, by whatever name called, managing the whole or substantially the whole of the affairs of an Indian company, at or in connection with the termination of his management or the modification of the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 (b) Any person, by whatever name called, managing the whole or substantially the whole of the affairs in India of any other company, at or in connection with the termination of his office or the modification of the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 (c) Any person, by whatever name called, holding an agency in India for any part of the activities relating to the business of any other person, at or in connection with the termination of the agency or the modification of the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 (d) Any person, for or in connection with the vesting in the Government, or in any corporation owned or controlled by the Government, under any law for the time being in force, of the management of any property or business;

(iii) Income derived by a trade, professional or similar association from specific services performed for its members;

 (iiia) Profits on sale of a licence granted under the Imports (Control) Order, 1955, made under the Imports and Exports (Control) Act, 1947 (18 of 1947);

(iiib) Cash assistance (by whatever name called) received or receivable by any person against exports under any scheme of the Government of India;

(iiic) Any duty of customs or excise re-paid or re-payable as drawback to any person against exports under the Customs and Central Excise Duties Drawback Rules, 1971;

 (iv) The value of any benefit or perquisite, whether convertible into money or not, arising from business or the exercise of a profession;

 (v) Any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called, due to, or received by, a partner of a firm from such firm :

Provided that where any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called, or any part thereof has not been allowed to be deducted under clause

(b) Of section 40, the income under this clause shall be adjusted to the extent of the amount not so allowed to be deducted;

(vi) Any sum received under a Keyman insurance policy including the sum allocated by way of bonus on such policy.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “Keyman insurance policy” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (10D) of section 10.

Explanation 1 : Where speculative transactions carried on by an assessee are of such a nature as to constitute a business, the business (hereinafter referred to as “speculation business”) shall be deemed to be distinct and separate from any other business.

Section 29. INCOME FROM PROFITS AND GAINS OF BUSINESS OR PROFESSION, HOW COMPUTED.

The income referred to in section 28 shall be computed in accordance with the provisions contained in sections 30 to 43D.

Section 30. RENT, RATES, TAXES, REPAIRS AND INSURANCE FOR BUILDINGS.

 In respect of rent, rates, taxes, repairs and insurance for premises, used for the purposes of the business or profession, the following deductions shall be allowed - (a) Where the premises are occupied by the assessee -

(i) As a tenant, the rent paid for such premises; and further if he has undertaken to bear the cost of repairs to the premises, the amount paid on account of such repairs;

 (ii) Otherwise than as a tenant, the amount paid by him on account of current repairs to the premises;

(b) Any sums paid on account of land revenue, local rates or municipal taxes;

 (c) The amount of any premium paid in respect of insurance against risk of damage or destruction of the premises.

Section 31. REPAIRS AND INSURANCE OF MACHINERY, PLANT AND FURNITURE.

 In respect of repairs and insurance of machinery, plant or furniture used for the purposes of the business or profession, the following deductions shall be allowed -

(i) The amount paid on account of current repairs thereto;

(ii) The amount of any premium paid in respect of insurance against risk of damage or destruction thereof.

Section 32. DEPRECIATION.

(1) In respect of depreciation of - (i) Buildings, machinery, plant or furniture, being tangible assets;

(ii) Know-how, patents, copyrights, trade marks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature, being intangible assets acquired on or after the 1st day of April, 1998, owned, wholly or partly, by the assessee and used for the purposes of the business or profession, the following deductions shall be allowed – (i) In the case of assets of an undertaking engaged in generation or generation and distribution of power, such percentage on the actual cost thereof to the assessee as may be prescribed;

 (ii) In the case of any block of assets, such percentage on the written down value thereof as may be prescribed 440 439 ]:

Provided that no deduction shall be allowed under this clause in respect of - (a) Any motor car manufactured outside India, where such motor car is acquired by the assessee after the 28th day of February, 1975, unless it is used - (i) In a business of running it on hire for tourists; or

(ii) Outside India in his business or profession in another country; and

(b) Any machinery or plant if the actual cost thereof is allowed as a deduction in one or more years under an agreement entered into by the Central Government under section 42 : 443 ]

 Provided further that where an asset referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii), as the case may be, is acquired by the assessee during the previous year and is put to use for the purposes of business or profession for a period of less than one hundred and eighty days in that previous year, the deduction under this sub-section in respect of such asset shall be restricted to fifty per cent of the amount calculated at the percentage prescribed for an asset under clause (i) or clause (ii), as the case may be :

Provided also that where an asset being commercial vehicle is acquired by the assessee on or after the 1st day of October, 1998 but before the 1st day of April, 1999 and is put to use before the 1st day of April, 1999 for the purposes of business or profession, the deduction in respect of such asses shall be allowed on such percentage on the written down value thereof as may be prescribed.

Explanation : For the purposes of this proviso, - (a) The expression “commercial vehicle” means “heavy goods vehicle”, “heavy passenger motor vehicle”, “light motor vehicle”, “medium goods vehicle” and “medium passenger motor vehicle” but does not include “maxi-cab”, “motor-cab”, “tractor” and “road-roller”;

(b) The expression “heavy goods vehicle”, “heavy passenger motor vehicle”, “light motor vehicle”, “medium goods vehicle”, “medium passenger motor vehicle”, “maxi-cab”, “motor-cab”, “tractor” and “road roller” shall have the meanings respectively as assigned to them in section 2 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988).

Provided also that, in respect of the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1991 the deduction in relation to any block of assets under this clause shall, in the case of a company, be restricted to seventy-five per cent of the amount calculated at the percentage, on the written down value of such assets, prescribed under this Act immediately before the commencement of the Taxation Laws (Amendment) Act, 1991.

Provided also that the aggregate deduction, in respect of depreciation of buildings, machinery, plant or furniture, being tangible assets or know-how, patents, copyrights, trademarks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature, being intangible assets allowable to the predecessor and the successor in the case of succession referred to in clause (xiii) and clause (xiv) of section 47 or section 170 or to the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company in the case of amalgamation, as the case may be, shall not exceed in any previous year the deduction calculated at the prescribed rates as if the succession had not taken place, and such deduction shall be apportioned between the predecessor and the successor, or the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company, as the case may be, in the ratio of the number of days for which the assets were used by them.

Explanation 1 : Where the business or profession of the assessee is carried on in a building not owned by him but in respect of which the assessee holds a lease or other right of occupancy and any capital expenditure is incurred by the assessee for the purposes of the business or profession on the construction of any structure or doing of any work in or in relation to, and by way of renovation or extension of, or improvement to, the building, then, the provisions of this clause shall apply as if the said structure or work is a building owned by the assessee.

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause “written down value of the block of assets” shall have the same meaning as in clause (c) of sub-section (6) of section 43;

Explanation 3 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expressions “assets” and “block of assets” shall mean - (a) Tangible assets, being buildings, machinery, plant or furniture;

(b) Intangible assets, being know-how, patents, copyrights, trade marks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature.

 Explanation 4 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “know-how” means any industrial information or technique likely to assist in the manufacture or processing of goods or in the working of a mine, oil-well or other sources of mineral deposits (including searching for discovery or testing of deposits for the winning of access thereto);

(iii) In the case of any building, machinery, plant or furniture in respect of which depreciation is claimed under clause (i) and which is sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed in the previous year (other than the previous year in which it is first brought into use), the amount by which the moneys payable in respect of such building, machinery, plant or furniture, together with the amount of scrap value, if any, fall short of the written down value thereof :

Provided that such deficiency is actually written off in the books of the assessee.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - (1) “Moneys payable” in respect of any building, machinery, plant or furniture includes - (a) Any insurance, salvage or compensation moneys payable in respect thereof;

(b) Where the building, machinery, plant or furniture is sold, the price for which it is sold, so, however, that where the actual cost of a motor car is, in accordance with the proviso to clause (1) of section 43, taken to be twenty-five thousand rupees, the moneys payable in respect of such motor car shall be taken to be a sum which bears to the amount for which the motor car is sold or, as the case may be, the amount of any insurance, salvage or compensation moneys payable in respect thereof (including the amount of scrap value, if any) the same proportion as the amount of twenty-five thousand rupees bears to the actual cost of the motor car to the assessee as it would have been computed before applying the said proviso;

(2) “Sold” includes a transfer by way of exchange or a compulsory acquisition under any law for the time being in force but does not include a transfer, in a scheme of amalgamation, of any asset by the amalgamating company to the amalgamated company where the amalgamated company is an Indian company.

(2) Where in the assessment of the assessee full effect cannot be given to any allowance under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) in any previous year owing to there being no profits or gains chargeable for that previous year or owing to the profits or gains being less than the allowance, then, the allowance or the part of allowance to which effect has not been given (hereinafter referred to as unabsorbed depreciation allowance), as the case may be, – (i) Shall be set off against the profits and gains, if any, of any business or profession carried on by him and assessable for that assessment year;

 (ii) If the unabsorbed depreciation allowance cannot be wholly set off under clause (i), the amount not so set off shall be set off from the income under any other head, if any, assessable for that assessment year;

(iii) If the unabsorbed depreciation allowance cannot be wholly set off under clause (i) and clause (ii), the amount of allowance not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and - (a) It shall be set off against the profits and gains, if any, of any business or profession carried on by him and assessable for that assessment year;

 (b) If the unabsorbed depreciation allowance cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of unabsorbed depreciation allowance not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year not being more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the aforesaid allowance was first computed :

Provided that the business or profession for which the allowance was originally computed continued to be carried on by him in the previous year relevant for that assessment year :

Provided further that the time limit of eight assessment years specified in sub-clause (b) shall not apply in the case of a company for the assessment year beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the said company has become a sick industrial company under sub-section (1) of section 17 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986) and ending with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the entire net worth of such company becomes equal to or exceeds the accumulated losses.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “net worth” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ga) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986).

Section 32A. INVESTMENT ALLOWANCE.

 (1) In respect of a ship or an aircraft or machinery or plant specified in sub-section (2), which is owned by the assessee and is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by him, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction, in respect of the previous year in which the ship or aircraft was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed or, if the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant is first put to use in the immediately succeeding previous year, then, in respect of that previous year, of a sum by way of investment allowance equal to twenty-five per cent. of the actual cost of the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant to the assessee :

 Provided that in respect of a ship or an aircraft or machinery or plant specified in sub-section (8B), this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words ”twenty-five per cent”, the words “twenty per cent” had been substituted :

 Provided further that no deduction shall be allowed under this section in respect of - (a) Any machinery or plant installed in any office premises or any residential accommodation, including any accommodation in the nature of a guest-house;

 (b) Any office appliances or road transport vehicles;

(c) Any ship, machinery or plant in respect of which the deduction by way of development rebate is allowable under section 33; and

(d) Any machinery or plant, the whole of the actual cost of which is allowed as a deduction (whether by way of depreciation or otherwise) in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” of any one previous year.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, “actual cost” means the actual cost of the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant to the assessee as reduced by that part of such cost which has been met out of the amount released to the assessee under sub-section (6) of section 32AB.

 (2) The ship or aircraft or machinery or plant referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :- (a) A new ship or new aircraft acquired after the 31st day of March, 1976, by an assessee engaged in the business of operation of ships or aircraft;

(b) Any new machinery or plant installed after the 31st day of March, 1976 - (i) For the purposes of business of generation or distribution of electricity or any other form of power; or

 (ii) 454 in a small-scale industrial undertaking for the purposes of business of manufacture or production of any article or thing; or

 (iii) In any other industrial undertaking for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any article or thing, not being an article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule :

 Provided that nothing contained in clauses (a) and (b) shall apply in relation to, - (i) A new ship or new aircraft acquired, or

(ii) Any new machinery or plant installed, after the 31st day of March, 1987 but before the 1st day of April, 1988, unless such ship or aircraft is acquired or such machinery or plant is installed in the circumstances specified in clause (a) of sub-section (8B) and the assessee furnishes evidence to the satisfaction of the Assessing Officer as specified in that clause;

 (c) Any new machinery or plant installed after the 31st day of March, 1983, but before the 1st day of April, 1987, for the purposes of business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft if the business is carried on by an Indian company and the business so carried on is for the time being approved for the purposes of this clause by the Central Government.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section and sub-sections (2B), (2C) and (4), - (1)(a) “new ship” or “new aircraft” includes a ship or aircraft which before the date of acquisition by the assessee was used by any other person, if it was not at any time previous to the date of such acquisition owned by any person resident in India;

 (b) “New machinery or plant” includes machinery or plant which before its installation by the assessee was used outside India by any other person, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) Such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of such installation by the assessee, used in India;

(ii) Such machinery or plant is imported into India from any country outside India; and

 (iii) No deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), or this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee,

 (2) An industrial undertaking shall be deemed to be a small-scale industrial undertaking, if the aggregate value of the machinery and plant (other than tools, jigs, dies and moulds) installed, as on the last day of the previous year, for the purposes of the business of the undertaking does not exceed, -

(i) In a case where the previous year ends before the 1st day of August, 1980, ten lakh rupees;

 (ii) In a case where the previous year ends after the 31st day of July, 1980, but before the 18th day of March, 1985, twenty lakh rupees; and

(iii) In a case where the previous year ends after the 17th day of March, 1985, thirty-five lakh rupees, and for this purpose the value of any machinery or plant shall be, -

(a) In the case of any machinery or plant owned by the assessee, the actual cost thereof to the assessee; and

 (b) In the case of any machinery or plant hired by the assessee, the actual cost thereof as in the case of the owner of such machinery or plant.

(2A) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be denied in respect of any machinery or plant installed and used mainly for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any article or thing, not being an article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule, by reason only that such machinery or plant is also used for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any article or thing specified in the said list.

(2B) Where any new machinery or plant is installed after the 30th day of June, 1977 but before the 1st day of April, 1987, for the purposes of business of manufacture or production of any article or thing and such article or thing -

(a) Is manufactured or produced by using any technology (including any process) or other know-how developed in, or

 (b) Is an article or thing invented in, a laboratory owned or financed by the Government, or a laboratory owned by a public sector company or a University or by an institution recognised in this behalf by the prescribed authority 463 , the provisions of sub-section (1) shall have effect in relation to such machinery or plant as if for the words “twenty-five per cent.”, the words “thirty-five per cent” had been substituted, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :-

 (i) The right to use such technology (including any process) or other know-how or to manufacture or produce such article or thing has been acquired from the owner of such laboratory or any person deriving title from such owner;

(ii) The assessee furnishes, along with the return of income for the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed, a certificate from the prescribed authority to the effect that such article or thing is manufactured or produced by using such technology (including any process) or other know-how developed in such laboratory or is an article or thing invented in such laboratory; and

(iii) The machinery or plant is not used for the purpose of business of manufacture or production of any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, - (a) “Laboratory financed by the Government” means a laboratory owned by any body [including a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860)] and financed wholly or mainly by the Government;

 (c) “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act and includes an institution declared under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 (3 of 1956), to be a University for the purposes of that Act.

(2C) Where any new machinery or plant, being machinery or plant which would assist in control of pollution or protection of environment and which has been notified 466 in this behalf by the Central Government in the Official Gazette, is installed after the 31st day of May, 1983 but before the 1st day of April, 1987, in any industrial undertaking referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause (iii) of clause (b) of sub-section (2), the provisions of sub-section (1) shall have effect in relation to such machinery or plant as if for the words “twenty-five per cent”, the words “thirty-five per cent” had been substituted.

 (3) Where the total income of the assessee assessable for the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the ship or aircraft was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed, or, as the case may be, the immediately succeeding previous year [the total income for this purpose being computed after deduction of the allowance under section 33 and section 33A, but without making any deduction under sub-section (1) of this section or any deduction under Chapter VI-A is nil or is less than the full amount of the investment allowance, - (i) The sum to be allowed by way of investment allowance for that assessment year under sub-section (1) shall be only such amount as is sufficient to reduce the said total income to nil; and

(ii) The amount of the investment allowance, to the extent to which it has not been allowed as aforesaid, shall be carried forward to the following assessment year, and the investment allowance to be allowed for the following assessment year shall be such amount as is sufficient to reduce the total income of the assessee assessable for that assessment year, computed in the manner aforesaid, to nil, and the balance of the investment allowance, if any, still outstanding shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on, so, however, that no portion of the investment allowance shall be carried forward for more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the ship or aircraft was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed or, as the case may be, the immediately succeeding previous year.

Explanation : Where for any assessment year, investment allowance is to be allowed in accordance with the provisions of this sub-section in respect of any ship or aircraft acquired or any machinery or plant installed in more than one previous year, and the total income of the assessee assessable for that assessment year [the total income for this purpose being computed after deduction of the allowance under section 33 and section 33A, but without making any deduction under sub-section (1) of this section or any deduction under Chapter VI-A] is less than the aggregate of the amounts due to be allowed in respect of the asset aforesaid for that assessment year, the following procedure shall be followed, namely :- (a) The allowance under clause (ii) shall be made before any allowance under clause (i) is made; and (b) where an allowance has to be made under clause (ii) in respect of amounts carried forward from more than one assessment year, the amount carried forward from an earlier assessment year shall be allowed before any amount carried forward from a later assessment year.

 (4) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed only if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The particulars prescribed 468 in this behalf have been furnished by the assessee in respect of the ship or aircraft or machinery or plant;

 (ii) An amount equal to seventy-five per cent of the investment allowance to be actually allowed is debited to the profit and loss account of any previous year in respect of which the deduction is to be allowed under sub-section (3) or any earlier previous year [being a previous year not earlier than the year in which the ship or aircraft was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed or the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant was first put to use] and credited to a reserve account (to be called the “Investment Allowance Reserve Account”) to be utilised - (a) For the purposes of acquiring, before the expiry of a period of ten years next following the previous year in which the ship or aircraft was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed, a new ship or a new aircraft or new machinery or plant [other than machinery or plant of the nature referred to in clauses (a), (b) and (d) of the second proviso to sub-section (1)] for the purposes of the business of the undertaking; and

(b) Until the acquisition of a new ship or a new aircraft or new machinery or plant as aforesaid, for the purposes of the business of the undertaking other than for distribution by way of dividends or profits or for remittance outside India as profits or for the creation of any asset outside India :

Provided that this clause shall have effect in respect of a ship as if for the word “seventy-five”, the word “fifty” had been substituted.

Explanation : Where the amount debited to the profit and loss account and credited to the Investment Allowance Reserve Account under this sub-section is not less than the amount required to be so credited on the basis of the amount of deduction in respect of investment allowance claimed in the return made by the assessee under section 139, but a higher deduction in respect of the investment allowance is admissible on the basis of the total income as proposed to be computed by the Assessing Officer under section 143, the Assessing Officer shall, by notice in writing in this behalf, allow the assessee an opportunity to credit within the time specified in the notice or within such further time as the Assessing Officer may allow, a further amount to the Investment Allowance Reserve Account out of the profits and gains of the previous year in which such notice is served on the assessee or of the immediately preceding previous year, if the accounts for that year have not been made up; and, if the assessee credits any further amount to such account within the time aforesaid, the amount so credited shall be deemed to have been credited to the Investment Allowance Reserve Account of the previous year in which the deduction is admissible and such amount shall not be taken into account in determining the adequacy of the reserve required to be credited by the assessee in respect of the previous year in which such further credit is made :

 Provided that such opportunity shall not be allowed by the Assessing Officer in a case where the difference in the total income as proposed to be computed by him and the total income as returned by the assessee arises out of the application of the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 145 or sub-section (2) of that section or the omission by the assessee to disclose his income fully and truly.

(5) Any allowance made under this section in respect of any ship, aircraft, machinery or plant shall be deemed to have been wrongly made for the purposes of this Act – (a) If the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which it was acquired or installed; or

(b) If at any time before the expiry of ten years from the end of the previous year in which the ship or aircraft was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed, the assessee does not utilise the amount credited to the reserve account under sub-section (4) for the purposes of acquiring a new ship or a new aircraft or new machinery or plant [other than machinery or plant of the nature referred to in clauses (a), (b) and (d) of the second proviso to sub-section (1)] for the purposes of the business of the undertaking; or

(c) If at any time before the expiry of the ten years aforesaid, the assessee utilises the amount credited to the reserve account under sub-section (4) for distribution by way of dividends or profits or for remittance outside India as profits or for the creation of any asset outside India or for any other purpose which is not a purpose of the business of the undertaking, and the provisions of sub-section (4A) of section 155 shall apply accordingly :

Provided that nothing in clause (a) shall apply - (i) Where the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to the Government, a local authority, a corporation established by a Central, State or Provincial Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 or (1 of 1956); or

(ii) Where the sale or transfer of the ship, aircraft, machinery or plant is made in connection with the amalgamation or succession, referred to in sub-section (6) or sub-section (7).

(6) Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers to the amalgamated company any ship, aircraft, machinery or plant, in respect of which investment allowance has been allowed to the amalgamating company under sub-section (1), - (a) The amalgamated company shall continue to fulfil the conditions mentioned in sub-section (4) in respect of the reserve created by the amalgamating company and in respect of the period within which such ship, aircraft, machinery or plant shall not be sold or otherwise transferred and in default of any of these conditions, the provisions of sub-section (4A) of section 155 shall apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company had it committed the default; and

 (b) The balance of investment allowance, if any, still outstanding to the amalgamating company in respect of such ship, aircraft, machinery or plant, shall be allowed to the amalgamated company in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3), so, however, that the total period for which the balance of investment allowance shall be carried forward in the assessments of the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company shall not exceed the period of eight years specified in sub-section (3) and the amalgamated company shall be treated as the assessee in respect of such ship, aircraft, machinery or plant, for the purposes of this section.

 (7) Where a firm is succeeded to by a company in the business carried on by it as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers to the company any ship, aircraft, machinery or plant, the provisions of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (6) shall, so far as may be, apply to the firm and the company.

Explanation : The provisions of this sub-section shall apply only where - (i) All the property of the firm relating to the business immediately before the succession becomes the property of the company;

 (ii) All the liabilities of the firm relating to the business immediately before the succession become the liabilities of the company; and

(iii) All the shareholders of the company were partners of the firm immediately before the succession.

(8) The Central Government, if it considers necessary or expedient so to do, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the deduction allowable under this section shall not be allowed in respect of any ship or aircraft acquired or any machinery or plant installed after such date as may be specified 475 therein.

 (8A) The Central Government, if it considers necessary or expedient so to do, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, omit any article or thing from the list of articles or things specified in the Eleventh Schedule.

(8B) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (8) or the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) No. G.S.R. 870(E), dated the 12th June, 1986, issued thereunder, the provisions of this section shall apply in respect of, - (a)(i) A new ship or new aircraft acquired after the 31st day of March, 1987 but before the 1st day of April, 1988, if the assessee furnishes evidence to the satisfaction of the Assessing Officer that he had, before the 12th day of June, 1986, entered into a contract for the purchase of such ship or aircraft with the builder or manufacturer or owner thereof, as the case may be;

 (ii) Any new machinery or plant installed after the 31st day of March, 1987 but before the 1st day of April, 1988, if the assessee furnishes evidence to the satisfaction of the Assessing Officer that before the 12th day of June, 1986, he had purchased such machinery or plant or had entered into a contract for the purchase of such machinery or plant with the manufacturer or owner of, or a dealer in, such machinery or plant, or had, where such machinery or plant has been manufactured in an undertaking owned by the assessee, taken steps for the manufacture of such machinery or plant :

Provided that nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall entitle the assessee to claim deduction in respect of a ship or aircraft or machinery or plant referred to in this clause in any previous year except the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989;

 (b) A new ship or new aircraft acquired or any new machinery or plant installed after the 31st day of March, 1988, but before such date as the Central Government, if it considers necessary or expedient so to do, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 477a in this behalf.

 (8C) Subject to the provisions of clause (ii) of sub-section (3), where a deduction has been allowed to an assessee under sub-section (1) in any assessment year, no deduction shall be allowed to the assessee under section 32AB in the said assessment year (hereinafter referred to as the initial assessment year) and a block of further period of four years beginning with the assessment year immediately succeeding the initial assessment year.

Section 32AB. INVESTMENT DEPOSIT ACCOUNT.

(1) Subject to the other provisions of this section, where an assessee, whose total income includes income chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”, has, out of such income, - (a) Deposited any amount in an account (hereafter in this section referred to as deposit account) maintained by him with the Development Bank before the expiry of six months from the end of the previous year or before furnishing the return of his income, whichever is earlier; or

 (b) Utilised any amount during the previous year for the purchase of any new ship, new aircraft, new machinery or plant, without depositing any amount in the deposit account under clause (a), in accordance with, and for the purposes specified in, a scheme 480 (hereafter in this section referred to as the scheme) to be framed by the Central Government, or if the assessee is carrying on the business of growing and manufacturing tea in India, to be approved in this behalf by the Tea Board, the assessee shall be allowed a deduction (such deduction being allowed before the loss, if any, brought forward from earlier years is set off under section 72) - (i) A sum equal to the amount or, the aggregate of the amounts, so deposited and any amount so utilised; or

(ii) a sum equal to twenty per cent of the profits of business or profession as computed in the accounts of the assessee audited in accordance with sub-section (5), whichever is less :

 Provided that where such assessee is a firm, or any association of persons or any body of individuals, the deduction under this section shall not be allowed in the computation of the income of any partner, or as the case may be, any member of such firm, association of persons or body of individuals :

Provided further that no such deduction shall be allowed in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1991, or any subsequent assessment year.

 (2) For the purposes of this section, - (ii) “New ship” or “new aircraft” includes a ship or aircraft which before the date of acquisition by the assessee was used by any other person, if it was not at any time previous to the date of such acquisition owned by any person resident in India;

(iii) “New machinery or plant” includes machinery or plant which before its installation by the assessee was used outside India by any other person, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) Such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of such installation by the assessee, used in India;

 (b) Such machinery or plant is imported into India from any country outside India; and

 (c) No deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee;

(iv) “Tea Board” means the Tea Board established under section 4 of the Tea Act, 1953 (29 of 1953).

  (3) The profits of business or profession of an assessee for the purposes of sub-section (1) shall be an amount arrived at after deducting an amount equal to the depreciation computed in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 32 from the amounts of profits computed in accordance with the requirements of Parts II and III of the Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), as increased by the aggregate of - (i) The amount of depreciation;

 (ii) The amount of income-tax paid or payable, and provision therefor;

 (iii) The amount of surtax paid or payable under the Companies (Profits) Surtax Act, 1964 (7 of 1964);

 (iv) The amounts carried to any reserves, by whatever name called;

(v) The amount or amounts set aside to provisions made for meeting liabilities, other than ascertained liabilities;

(vi) The amount by way of provision for losses of subsidiary companies; and

(vii) The amount or amounts of dividends paid or proposed, if any debited to the profit and loss account; and as reduced by any amount or amounts withdrawn from reserves or provisions, if such amounts are credited to the profit and loss account;

(4) No deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed in respect of any amount utilised for the purchase of - (a) Any machinery or plant to be installed in any office premises or residential accommodation, including any accommodation in the nature of a guest-house;

(b) Any office appliances (not being computers);

(c) Any road transport vehicles;

(d) Any machinery or plant, the whole of the actual cost of which is allowed as a deduction (whether by way of depreciation or otherwise) in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” of any one previous year;

 (e) Any new machinery or plant to be installed in an industrial undertaking, other than a small scale industrial undertaking, as defined in section 80HHA, for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule.

(5) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the accounts of the business or profession of the assessee for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form 493 duly signed and verified by such accountant :

Provided that in a case where the assessee is required by or under any other law to get his accounts audited, it shall be sufficient compliance with the provisions of this sub-section if such assessee gets the accounts of such business or profession audited under such law and furnishes the report of the audit as required under such other law and a further report in the form prescribed under this sub-section.

 (5A) Any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the deposit account shall not be allowed to be withdrawn before the expiry of a period of five years from the date of deposit except for the purposes specified in the scheme or in the circumstances specified below :- (a) Closure of business;

 (b) Death of an assessee;

(c) Partition of a Hindu undivided family;

(d) Dissolution of a firm;

(e) Liquidation of a company.

Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that nothing contained in this sub-section shall affect the operation of the provisions of sub-section (5AA) or sub-section (6) in relation to any withdrawals made from the deposit account either before or after the expiry of a period of five years from the date of deposit.

(5AA) Where any amount, standing to the credit of the assessee in the deposit account, is withdrawn during any previous year by the assessee in the circumstances specified in clause (a) or clause (d) of sub-section (5A), the whole of such amount shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of that previous year and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year, as if the business had not closed or, as the case may be, the firm had not been dissolved.

 (5B) Where any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the deposit account is utilised by the assessee for the purposes of any expenditure in connection with the business or profession in accordance with the scheme, such expenditure shall not be allowed in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

(6) Where any amount, standing to the credit of the assessee in the deposit account, released during any previous year by the Development Bank for being utilised by the assessee forthe purposes specified in the scheme or at the closure of the account in circumstances other than the circumstances specified in clauses (b), (c) and (e) of sub-section (5A) is not utilised in accordance with, and within the time specified in, the scheme 498, either wholly or in part, the whole of such amount, or as the case may be, part thereof which is not so utilised shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of that previous year and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year.

(7) Where any asset acquired in accordance with the scheme is sold or otherwise transferred in any previous year by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which it was acquired, such part of the cost of such asset as is relatable to the deductions allowed under sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of the previous year in which the asset is sold or otherwise transferred and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year :

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply - (i) Where the asset is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to Government, a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

 (ii) Where the sale or transfer of the asset is made in connection with the succession of a firm by a company in the business or profession carried on by the firm as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers to the company any asset and the scheme continues to apply to the company in the manner applicable to the firm.

 Explanation : The provisions of clause (ii) of the proviso shall apply only where - (i) All the properties of the firm relating to the business or profession immediately before the succession become the properties of the company;

 (ii) All the liabilities of the firm relating to the business or profession immediately before the succession become the liabilities of the company; and

(iii) All the shareholders of the company were partners of the firm immediately before the succession.

 (8) The Central Government may, if it considers it necessary or expedient so to do, by notification in the Official Gazette, omit any article or thing from the list of articles or things specified in the Eleventh Schedule.

 (9) The Central Government may, after making such inquiry as it may think fit, direct, by notification in the Official Gazette, that the provisions of this section shall not apply to any class of assessees, with effect from such date as it may specify in the notification.

 (10) Where a deduction has been allowed to an assessee under this section in any assessment year, no deduction shall be allowed to the assessee under sub-section (1) of section 32A in the said assessment year (hereinafter referred to as the initial assessment year) and a block of further period of four years beginning with the assessment year immediately succeeding the initial assessment year.

 Explanation : In this section, – (a) “Computers” does not include calculating machines and calculating devices;

 (b) “Development Bank” means - (i) In the case of an assessee carrying on business of growing and manufacturing tea in India, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development established under section 3 of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981 (61 of 1981);

 (ii) In the case of other assessees, the Industrial Development Bank of India established under the Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964 (18 of 1964) and includes such bank or institution as may be specified in the scheme in this behalf.

Section 33. DEVELOPMENT REBATE.

(1)(a) In respect of a new ship or new machinery or plant (other than office appliances or road transport vehicles) which is owned by the assessee and is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by him, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section and of section 34, be allowed a deduction, in respect of the previous year in which the ship was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed or, if the ship, machinery or plant is first put to use in the immediately succeeding previous year, then, in respect of that previous year, a sum by way of development rebate as specified in clause (b).

(b) The sum referred to in clause (a) shall be - (A) In the case of a ship, forty per cent of the actual cost thereof to the assessee;

 (B) in the case of machinery or plant, - (i) Where the machinery or plant is installed for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any one or more of the articles or things specified in the list in the Fifth Schedule, -

(a) Thirty-five per cent of the actual cost of the machinery or plant to the assessee, where it is installed before the 1st day of April, 1970, and

(b) Twenty-five per cent of such cost, where it is installed after the 31st day of March, 1970;

 (ii) Where the machinery or plant is installed after the 31st day of March, 1967, by an assessee being an Indian company in premises used by it as a hotel and such hotel is for the time being approved in this behalf by the Central Government, - (a) Thirty-five per cent of the actual cost of the machinery or plant to the assessee, where it is installed before the 1st day of April, 1970, and

(b) Twenty-five per cent of such cost, where it is installed after the 31st day of March, 1970;

(iii) Where the machinery or plant is installed after the 31st day of March, 1967, being an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature on scientific research related to the business carried on by the assessee, - (a) Thirty-five per cent of the actual cost of the machinery or plant to the assessee, where it is installed before the 1st day of April, 1970, and

 (b) Twenty-five per cent of such cost, where it is installed after the 31st day of March, 1970;

(iv) In any other case, - (a) Twenty per cent of the actual cost of the machinery or plant to the assessee, where it is installed before the 1st day of April, 1970, and

 (b) Fifteen per cent of such cost, where it is installed after the 31st day of March, 1970.

1A)(a) An assessee who, after the 31st day of March, 1964, acquires any ship which before the date of acquisition by him was used by any other person shall, subject to the provisions of section 34, also be allowed as a deduction a sum by way of development rebate at such rate or rates as may be prescribed, provided that the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) Such ship was not previous to the date of such acquisition owned at any time by any person resident in India;

 (ii) Such ship is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by the assessee; and

 (iii) Such other conditions as may be prescribed 503 .

 (b) An assessee who installs any machinery or plant (other than office appliances or road transport vehicles) which before such installation by the assessee was used outside India by any other person shall, subject to the provisions of section 34, also be allowed as a deduction a sum by way of development rebate at such rate or rates as may be prescribed, provided that the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :-

 (i) Such machinery or plant was not used in India at any time previous to the date of such installation by the assessee;

(ii) It is imported in India by the assessee from any country outside India;

(iii) No deduction on account of depreciation or development rebate in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), or this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee;

(iv) Such machinery or plant is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by the assessee; and

(v) Such other conditions as may be prescribed 503a .

(c) The development rebate under this sub-section shall be allowed as a deduction in respect of the previous year in which the ship was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed or, if the ship, machinery or plant is first put to use in the immediately succeeding previous year, then, in respect of that previous year.

(2) In the case of a ship acquired or machinery or plant installed after the 31st day of December, 1957, where the total income of the assessee assessable for the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the ship was acquired or the machinery or plant installed or the immediately succeeding previous year, as the case may be (the total income for this purpose being computed without making any allowance under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) of this section or sub-section (1) of section 33A or any deduction under Chapter VI-A is nil or is less than the full amount of the development rebate calculated at the rate applicable thereto under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A), as the case may be, – (i) The sum to be allowed by way of development rebate for that assessment year under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) shall be only such amount as is sufficient to reduce the said total income to nil; and

 (ii) The amount of the development rebate, to the extent to which it has not been allowed as aforesaid, shall be carried forward to the following assessment year, and the development rebate to be allowed for the following assessment year shall be such amount as is sufficient to reduce the total income of the assessee assessable for that assessment year, computed in the manner aforesaid, to nil, and the balance of the development rebate, if any, still outstanding shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on, so, however, that no portion of the development rebate shall be carried forward for more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the ship was acquired or the machinery or plant installed or the immediately succeeding previous year, as the case may be.

 Explanation – Where for any assessment year development rebate is to be allowed in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2) in respect of ships acquired or machinery or plant installed in more than one previous year, and the total income of the assessee assessable for that assessment year (the total income for this purpose being computed without making any allowance under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) of this section or sub-section (1) of section 33A or any deduction under Chapter VI-A is less than the aggregate of the amounts due to be allowed in respect of the assets aforesaid for that assessment year, the following procedure shall be followed, namely :- (i) The allowance under clause (ii) of sub-section (2) shall be made before any allowance under clause (i) of that sub-section is made; and (ii) where an allowance has to be made under clause (ii) of sub-section (2) in respect of amounts carried forward from more than one assessment year, the amount carried forward from an earlier assessment year shall be allowed before any amount carried forward from a later assessment year.

 (3) Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers to the amalgamated company any ship, machinery or plant in respect of which development rebate has been allowed to the amalgamating company under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A), – (a) The amalgamated company shall continue to fulfil the conditions mentioned in sub-section (3) of section 34 in respect of the reserve created by the amalgamating company and in respect of the period within which such ship, machinery or plant shall not be sold or otherwise transferred and in default of any of these conditions, the provisions of sub-section (5) of section 155 shall apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company had it committed the default; and

(b) The balance of development rebate, if any, still outstanding to the amalgamating company in respect of such ship, machinery or plant shall be allowed to the amalgamated company in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2), so, however, that the total period for which the balance of development rebate shall be carried forward in the assessments of the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company shall not exceed the period of eight years specified in sub-section (2) and the amalgamated company shall be treated as the assessee in respect of such ship, machinery or plant for the purposes of this section and section 34.

 (4) Where a firm is succeeded to by a company in the business carried on by it as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers to the company any ship, machinery or plant, the provisions of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (3) shall, so far as may be, apply to the firm and the company.

 Explanation – The provisions of this clause shall apply only where - (i) All the property of the firm relating to the business immediately before the succession becomes the property of the company;

(ii) All the liabilities of the firm relating to the business immediately before the succession become the liabilities of the company; and

(iii) All the shareholders of the company were partners of the firm immediately before the succession.

(5) The Central Government, if it considers in necessary or expedient so to do, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the deduction allowable under this section shall not be allowed in respect of a ship acquired or machinery or plant installed after such date, not being earlier than three years from the date of such notification 510 , as may be specified therein.

 (6) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, no deduction by way of development rebate shall be allowed in respect of any machinery or plant installed after the 31st day of March, 1965, in any office premises or any residential accommodation, including any accommodation in the nature of a guest-house :

Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply in the case of an assessee being an Indian company, in respect of any machinery or plant installed by it in premises used by it as a hotel, where the hotel is for the time being approved in this behalf by the Central Government.

Section 33A. DEVELOPMENT ALLOWANCE.

(1) In respect of planting of tea bushes in any land in India owned by an assessee who carries on business of growing and manufacturing tea in India, a sum by way of development allowance equivalent to - (i) Where tea bushes have been planted on any land not planted at any time with tea bushes or on any land which had been previously abandoned, fifty per cent of the actual cost of planting; and

 (ii) Where tea bushes are planted in replacement of tea bushes that have died or have become permanently useless on any land already planted, thirty per cent of the actual cost of planting, shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed as a deduction in the manner specified hereunder, namely :-

(a) The amount of the development allowance shall, in the first instance, be computed with reference to that portion of the actual cost of planting which is incurred during the previous year in which the land is prepared for planting or replanting, as the case may be, and in the previous year next following, and the amount so computed shall be allowed as a deduction in respect of such previous year next following; and

 (b) Thereafter, the development allowance shall again be computed with reference to the actual cost of planting, and if the sum so computed exceeds the amount allowed as a deduction under clause (a), the amount of the excess shall be allowed as a deduction in respect of the third succeeding previous year next following the previous year in which the land has been prepared for planting or replanting, as the case may be :

Provided that no deduction under clause (i) shall be allowed unless the planting has commenced after the 31st day of March, 1965, and been completed before the 1st day of April, 1990 :

Provided further that no deduction shall be allowed under clause (ii) unless the planting has commenced after the 31st day of March, 1965, and been completed before the 1st day of April, 1970.

 (2) Where the total income of the assessee assessable for the assessment year relevant to the previous year in respect of which the deduction is required to be allowed under sub-section (1) (the total income for this purpose being computed after deduction of the allowance under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) or clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of section 33, but without making any deduction under sub-section (1) of this section or any deduction under Chapter VIA is nil or is less than the full amount of the development allowance calculated at the rates and in the manner specified in sub-section (1) - (i) The sum to be allowed by way of development allowance for that assessment year under sub-section (1) shall be only such amount as is sufficient to reduce the said total income to nil; and

(ii) The amount of the development allowance, to the extent to which it has not been allowed as aforesaid, shall be carried forward to the following assessment year, and the development allowance to be allowed for the following assessment year shall be such amount as is sufficient to reduce the total income of the assessee assessable for that assessment year, computed in the manner aforesaid, to nil, and the balance of the development allowance, if any, still outstanding shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on, so, however, that no portion of the development allowance shall be carried forward for more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year in which the deduction was first allowable.

Explanation – Where for any assessment year development allowance is to be allowed in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2) in respect of more than one previous year, and the total income of the assessee assessable for that assessment year (the total income for this purpose being computed after deduction of the allowance under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) or clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of section 33, but without making any deduction under sub-section (1) of this section or any deduction under Chapter VI-A is less than the amount of the development allowance due to be made in respect of that assessment year; the following procedure shall be followed, namely :- (i) The allowance under clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of this section shall be made before any allowance under clause (i) of that sub-section is made; and (ii) where an allowance has to be made under clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of this section in respect of amounts carried forward from more than one assessment year, the amount carried forward from an earlier assessment year shall be allowed before any amount carried forward from a later assessment year.

 (3) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed only if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The particulars prescribed 522 in this behalf have been furnished by the assessee;

 (ii) An amount equal to seventy-five per cent of the development allowance to be actually allowed is debited to the profit and loss account of the relevant previous year and credited to a reserve account to be utilised by the assessee during a period of eight years next following for the purposes of the business of the undertaking, other than - (a) For distribution by way of dividends or profits; or

(b) For remittance outside India as profits or for the creation of any asset outside India; and

(iii) Such other conditions as may be prescribed 524 .

 (4) If any such land is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which the deduction under sub-section (1) was allowed, any allowance under this section shall be deemed to have been wrongly made for the purposes of this Act, and the provisions of sub-section (5A) of section 155 shall apply accordingly :

Provided that this sub-section shall not apply - (i) Where the land is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to the Government, a local authority, a corporation established by a Central, State or Provincial Act, or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or (ii) where the sale or transfer of the land is made in connection with the amalgamation or succession referred to in sub-section (5) or sub-section (6).

(5) Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers to the amalgamated company any land in respect of which development allowance has been allowed to the amalgamating company under sub-section (1), - (a) The amalgamated company shall continue to fulfil the conditions mentioned in sub-section (3) in respect of the reserve created by the amalgamating company and in respect of the period within which such land shall not be sold or otherwise transferred and in default of any of these conditions, the provisions of sub-section (5A) of section 155 shall apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company had it committed the default; and

 (b) The balance of development allowance, if any, still outstanding to the amalgamating company in respect of such land shall be allowed to the amalgamated company in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2), so, however, that the total period for which the balance of development allowance shall be carried forward in the assessments of the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company shall not exceed the period of eight years specified in sub-section (2) and the amalgamated company shall be treated as the assessee in respect of such land for the purposes of this section.

(6) Where a firm is succeeded to by a company in the business carried on by it as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers to the company any land on which development allowance has been allowed, the provisions of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (5) shall, so far as may be, apply to the firm and the company.

 Explanation : The provisions of this sub-section shall apply if the conditions laid down in the Explanation to sub-section (4) of section 33 are fulfilled.

 (7) For the purposes of this section, “actual cost of planting” means the aggregate of – (i) The cost of preparing the land;

(ii) The cost of seeds, cutting and nurseries;

 (iii) The cost of planting and replanting; and

(iv) The cost of upkeep thereof for the previous year in which the land has been prepared and the three successive previous years next following such previous year, reduced by that portion of the cost, if any, as has been met directly or indirectly by any other person or authority :

 Provided that where such cost exceeds - (i) Forty thousand rupees per hectare in respect of land situate in a hilly area comprised in the district of Darjeeling; or

(ii) Thirty-five thousand rupees per hectare in respect of land situate in a hilly area comprised in an area other than the district of Darjeeling; or

(iii) Thirty thousand rupees per hectare in any other area, then, the excess shall be ignored.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this proviso, “district of Darjeeling” means the district of Darjeeling as on the 28th day of February, 1981, being the date of introduction of the Finance Bill, 1981, in the House of the People.

 (8) The Board may, having regard to the elevation and topography, by general or special order, declare any areas to be hilly areas 526a for the purposes of this section and such order shall not be questioned before any court of law or any other authority.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, an assessee having a leasehold or other right of occupancy in any land shall be deemed to own such land and where the assessee transfers such right, he shall be deemed to have sold or otherwise transferred such land

 Section 33AB. TEA DEVELOPMENT ACCOUNT.

(1) Where an assessee carrying on business of growing and manufacturing tea in India has, before the expiry of six months from the end of the previous year or before furnishing the return of his income, whichever is earlier, - (a) Deposited with the National Bank any amount or amounts in an account (hereinafter in this section referred to as the special account) maintained by the assessee with that Bank in accordance with, and for the purposes specified in, a scheme (hereafter in this section referred to as the scheme) approved in this behalf by the Tea Board; or

 (b) Deposited any amount in an account (hereafter in this section referred to as the Tea Deposit Account) opened by the assessee in accordance with, and for the purposes specified in, a scheme framed by the Tea Board (hereafter in this section referred to as the deposit scheme) with the previous approval of the Central Government, the assessee shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction (such deduction being allowed before the loss, if any, brought forward from earlier years is set off under section 72) of - (a) A sum equal to the amount or the aggregate of the amounts so deposited; or

(b) A sum equal to twenty per cent of the profits of such business (computed under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” before making any deduction under this section), whichever is less :

Provided that where such assessee is a firm, or any association of persons or any body of individuals, the deduction under this section shall not be allowed in the computation of the income of any partner, or as the case may be, any member of such firm, association of persons or body of individuals :

Provided further that where any deduction, in respect of any amount deposited in the special account, or in the Tea Deposit Account has been allowed under this sub-section in any previous year, no deduction shall be allowed in respect of such amount in any other previous year.

(2) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the accounts of such business of the assessee for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant :

 Provided that in a case where the assessee is required by or under any other law to get his accounts audited, it shall be sufficient compliance with the provisions of this sub-section if such assessee gets the accounts of such business audited under such law and furnishes the report of the audit as required under such other law and a further report in the form prescribed under this sub-section.

(3) Any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or the Tea Deposit Account shall not be allowed to be withdrawn except for the purposes specified in the scheme or, as the case may be, in the deposit scheme or in the circumstances specified below :- (a)

Closure of business;

b) Death of an assessee;

(c) Partition of a Hindu undivided family;

(d) Dissolution of a firm;

(e) Liquidation of a company.

 (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), no deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed in respect of any amount utilised for the purchase of – (a) Any machinery or plant to be installed in any office premises or residential accommodation, including any accommodation in the nature of a guest-house;

 (b) Any office appliances (not being computers);

(c) Any machinery or plant, the whole of the actual cost of which is allowed as a deduction (whether by way of depreciation or otherwise) in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” of any one previous year;

 (d) Any new machinery or plant to be installed in an industrial undertaking for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule.

(5) Where any amount, standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account, or in the Tea Deposit Account, is withdrawn during any previous year by the assessee in the circumstances specified in clause

(a) or clause (d) of sub-section (3), the whole of such amount shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of that previous year and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year, as if the business had not closed or, as the case may be, the firm had not been dissolved.

 (6) Where any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or in the Tea Deposit Account is utilised by the assessee for the purposes of any expenditure in connection with such business in accordance with the scheme, or the deposit scheme, such expenditure shall not be allowed in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

 (7) Where any amount, standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or in the Tea Deposit Account, which is released during any previous year by the National Bank or which is withdrawn by the assessee from the Tea Deposit Account for being utilised by the assessee for the purposes of such business in accordance with the scheme or the deposite scheme is not so utilised, either wholly or in part, within that previous year, the whole of such amount or, as the case may be, part thereof which is not so utilised shall be deemed to be profits and gains of business and accordingly chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year :

 Provided that this sub-section shall not apply in a case where such amount is released during any previous year at the closure of the account in circumstances specified in clauses (b), (c) and (e) of sub-section (3).

(8) Where any asset acquired in accordance with the scheme or the deposit scheme is sold or otherwise transferred in any previous year by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which it was acquired, such part of the cost of such asset as is relatable to the deduction allowed under sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of the previous year in which the asset is sold or otherwise transferred and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year :

 Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply - (i) Where the asset is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to Government, a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

 (ii) Where the sale or transfer of the asset is made in connection with the succession of a firm by a company in the business or profession carried on by the firm as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers to the company any asset and the scheme or the deposite scheme continues to apply to the company in the manner applicable to the firm.

Explanation : The provisions of clause (ii) of the proviso shall apply only where - (i) All the properties of the firm relating to the business or profession immediately before the succession become the properties of the company;

 (ii) All the liabilities of the firm relating to the business or profession immediately before the succession become the liabilities of the company; and

(iii) All the shareholders of the company were partners of the firm immediately before the succession.

 (9) The Central Government, if it considers necessary or expedient so to do, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the deduction allowable under this section shall not be allowed after such date as may be specified therein.

Explanation : In this section, - (a) “National Bank” means the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development established under section 3 of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981 (61 of 1981).

 (b) “Tea Board” means the Tea Board established under section 4 of the Tea Act, 1953 (29 of 1953).

Section 33ABA . SITE RESTORATION FUND.

(1) where an assessee is carrying on business consisting of the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, petroleum or natural gas or both in India and in relation to which the Central Government has entered into an agreement with such assessee for such business, has before the end of the previous year -

 (a) Deposited with the State Bank of India any amount or amounts in an account (hereinafter in this section referred to as the special account) maintained by the assessee with that Bank in accordance with, and for the purposes specified in, a scheme (hereafter in this section referred to as the scheme) approved in this behalf by the Government of India in the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas; or

(b) Deposited any amount in an account (hereafter in this section referred to as the Site Restoration Account) opened by the assessee in accordance with, and for the purposes specified in, a scheme framed by the Ministry referred to in clause (a) (hereafter in this section referred to as the deposit scheme), the assessee shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction (such deduction being allowed before the loss, if any, brought forward from earlier years is set off under section 72) of - (i) A sum equal to the amount or the aggregate of the amounts so deposited; or

(ii) A sum equal to twenty per cent of the profits of such business (computed under the head “Profit and gains of business or profession” before making any deduction under this section), whichever is less :

 Provided that where such assessee is a firm, or any association of persons or any body of individuals, the deduction under this section shall not be allowed in the computation of the income of any partner or, as the case may be, any member of such firm, association of persons or body of individuals :

 Provided further that where any deduction, in respect of any amount deposited in the special account, or in the Site Restoration Account, has been allowed under this sub-section in any previous year, no deduction shall be allowed in respect of such amount in any other previous year :

Provided also that any amount credited in the special account or Site Restoration Account by way of interest shall be demed to be deposit.

 (2) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the accounts of such business of the assessee for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant :

 Provided that in a case where the assessee is required by or under any other law to get his accounts audited, it shall be sufficient compliance with the provisions of this sub-section if such assessee get the accounts of such business audited under such law and furnishes the report of the audit as required under such other law and a further report in the form prescribed under the sub-section.

 (3) Any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or the Site Restoration Account shall not be allowed to be withdrawn except for the purposes specified in the scheme or, as the case may be, in the deposit scheme.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), not deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed in respect of any amount utilised for the purchase of – (a) Any machinery or plant to be installed in any office premises or residential accommodation, including any accommodation in the nature of a guest-house;

(b) Any office appliances (not being computers);

 (c) Any machinery or plant, the whole of the actual cost of which is allowed as a deduction (whether by way of depreciation or otherwise) in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” of any one previous year;

(d) Any new machinery or plant to be installed in an industrial undertaking for the purposes of business of construction, manufacture or production of any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule.

(5) Where any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or in the Site Restoration Account is withdrawn or closure of the account during any previous year by the assessee, the amount so withdrawn from the account, as reduced by the amount, if any, payable to the Central Government by way of profit or production share as provided in the agreement referred to in section 42, shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of that previous year and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year.

Explanation : Where any amount is withdrawn on closure of the account in a previous year in which the business carried on by the assessee is not longer in existence, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year.

 (6) Where any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or in the Site Restoration Account is utilised by the assessee for the purposes of any expenditure in connection with such business in accordance with the scheme or the deposit scheme, such expenditure shall not be allowed in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

(7) Where any amount, standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or in the Site Restoration Account, which is released during any previous year by the State Bank of India or which is withdrawn by the assessee from the Site Restoration Account for being utilised by the assessee for the purposes of such business in accordance with the scheme or the deposit scheme is not so utilised, wither wholly or in part, within that previous year, the whole of such amount or, as the case may be, part thereof which is not so utilised shall be deemed to be profits and gains of business and accordingly chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year :

(8) Where any asset acquired in accordance with the scheme or the deposit scheme is sold or otherwise transferred in any previous year by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which it was acquired, such part of the cost of such asset as is relatable to the deduction allowed under sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession of the previous year in which the asset is sold or otherwise transferred and shall accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year :

 Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply - (i) Where the asset is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to Government, a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

 (ii) Where the sale or transfer of the asset is made in connection with the succession of a firm by a company in the business or profession carried on by the firm as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers to the company any asset and the scheme or the deposit scheme continues to apply to the company in the manner applicable to the firm.

Explanation : The provisions of clause (ii) of the proviso shall apply only where - (i) All the properties of the firm relating to the business of profession immediately before the succession become the properties of the company;

(ii) All the liability of the firm relating to the business or profession immediately before the succession become the liabilities of the company; and (iii) all the shareholders of the company were partners of the firm immediately before the succession.

 (9) The Central Government may, if it considers necessary or expedient so to do, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the deduction allowable under this section shall not be allowed after such date as may be specified therein.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section - (a) “State Bank of India” means the State Bank of India constituted under the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955);

 (b) The expression “amount standing to the credit of the assessee in the special account or the Site Restoration Account” includes interest accrued to such accounts.

Section 33AC. RESERVES FOR SHIPPING BUSINESS.

(1) In the case of an assessee, being a Government company or a public company formed and registered in India with the main object of carrying on the business of operation of ships, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction of an amount not exceeding fifty per cent of profits derived from the business of operation of ships (computed under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” and before making any deduction under this section), as is debited to the profit and loss account of the previous year in respect of which the deduction is to be allowed and credited to a reserve account, to be utilised in the manner laid down in sub-section (2) :

 Provided that where the aggregate of the amounts carried to such reserve account from time to time exceeds twice the amount of the paid-up share capital (excluding the amounts capitalised from reserves) of the assessee, no allowance under this sub-section shall be made in respect of such excess.

 (2) The amount credited to the reserve account under sub-section (1) shall be utilised by the assessee before the expiry of a period of eight years next following the previous year in which the amount was credited - (a) For acquiring a new ship for the purposes of the business of the assessee; and

 (b) Until the acquisition of a new ship, for the purposes of the business of the assessee other than for distribution by way of dividends or profits or for remittance outside India as profits or for the creation of any asset outside India.

 (3) Where any amount credited to the reserve account under sub-section (1), - (a) Has been utilised for any purpose other than that referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (2), the amount so utilised; or

(b) Has not been utilised for the purpose specified in clause (a) of sub-section (2), the amount not so utilised; or

 (c) Has been utilised for the purpose of acquiring a new ship as specified in clause (a) of sub-section (2), but such ship is sold or otherwise transferred, other than in any scheme of demerger by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which it was acquired, the amount so utilised in acquiring the ship, shall be deemed to be the profits, - (i) In a case referred to in clause (a), in the year in which the amount was so utilised; or

(ii) In a case referred to in clause (b), in the year immediately following the period of eight years specified in sub-section (2); or

(iii) In a case referred to in clause (c), in the year in which the sale or transfer took place, and shall be charged to tax accordingly.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Public company” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(aa) “Government company” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(b) “New ship” shall have the same meaning as in clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of section 32AB.

Section 33B. REHABILITATION ALLOWANCE.

Where the business of any industrial undertaking carried on in India is discontinued in any previous year by reason of extensive damage to, or destruction of, any building, machinery, plant or furniture owned by the assessee and used for the purposes of such business as a direct result of - (i) Flood, typhoon, hurricane, cyclone, earth-quake or other convulsion of nature; or

 (ii) Riot or civil disturbance; or

(iii) Accidental fire or explosion; or

(iv) Action by an enemy or action taken in combating an enemy (whether with or without a declaration of war), and, thereafter, at any time before the expiry of three years from the end of such previous year, the business is re-established, reconstructed or revived by the assessee, he shall, in respect of the previous year in which the business is so re-established, reconstructed or revived, be allowed a deduction of a sum by way of rehabilitation allowance equivalent to sixty per cent of the amount of the deduction allowable to him under clause (iii) of sub-section (1) of section 32 in respect of the building, machinery, plant or furniture so damaged or destroyed :

Provided that no deduction under this section shall be allowed in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1985 or any subsequent assessment year.

 Explanation : In this section, “industrial undertaking” means any undertaking which is mainly engaged in the business of generation or distribution of electricity or any other form of power or in the construction of ships or in the manufacture or processing of goods or in mining.

Section 34. CONDITIONS FOR DEPRECIATION ALLOWANCE AND DEVELOPMENT REBATE.

 (1)(a) The deduction referred to in section 33 shall not be allowed unless an amount equal to seventy-five per cent of the development rebate to be actually allowed is debited to the profit and loss account any previous year in respect of which the deduction is to be allowed under sub-section (2) of that section or any earlier previous year (being a previous year not earlier than the year in which the ship was acquired or the machinery or plant was installed or the ship, machinery or plant was put to use) and credited to a reserve account to be utilised by the assessee during a period of eight years next following for the purposes of the business of the undertaking, other than - (i) For distribution by way of dividends or profits; or

(ii) For remittance outside India as profits or for the creation of any asset outside India :

 Provided that this clause shall not apply where the assessee is a company, being a licensee within the meaning of the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948 (54 of 1948), or where the ship has been acquired or the machinery or plant has been installed before the 1st day of January, 1958 :

Provided further that where a ship has been acquired after the 28th day of February, 1966, this clause shall have effect in respect of such ship as if for the words “seventy-five”, the word “fifty” had been substituted.

(b) If any ship, machinery or plant is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to any person at any time before the expiry of eight years from the end of the previous year in which it was acquired or installed, any allowance made under section 33 or under the corresponding provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), in respect of that ship, machinery or plant shall be deemed to have been wrongly made for the purposes of this Act, and the provisions of sub-section (5) of section 155 shall apply accordingly :

Provided that this clause shall not apply - (i) Where the ship has been acquired or the machinery or plant has been installed before the 1st day of January, 1958; or

(ii) Where the ship, machinery or plant is sold or otherwise transferred by the assessee to the Government, a local authority, a corporation established by a Central, State or Provincial Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

(iii) Where the sale or transfer of the ship, machinery or plant is made in connection with amalgamation or succession, referred to in sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) of section 33.

Section 34A. RESTRICTION ON UNABSORBED DEPRECIATION AND UNABSORBED INVESTMENT ALLOWANCE FOR LIMITED PERIOD IN CASE OF CERTAIN DOMESTIC COMPANIES.

(1) In computing the profits and gains of the business of a domestic company in relation to the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1992, where effect is to be given to the unabsorbed depreciation allowance or unabsorbed investment allowance or both in relation to any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or before the 1st day of April, 1991, the deduction shall be restricted to two-third of such allowance or allowances and the balance, – (a) Where it relates to depreciation allowance, be added to the depreciation allowance for the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1993 and be deemed to be part of that allowance or if there is no such allowance for that previous year, be deemed to be the allowance for that previous year and so on for the succeeding previous years;

(b) Where it relates to investment allowance, be carried forward to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1993 and the balance of the investment allowance, if any, still outstanding shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and where the period of eight years has expired before the portion of such balance is adjusted, the said period shall be extended beyond eight years till such time the portion of the said balance is absorbed in the profits and gains of the business of the domestic company.

(2) For the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1992, the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 32 and sub-section (3) of section 32A shall apply to the extent such provisions are not inconsistent with the provisions of sub-section (1) of this section.

(3) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall apply where the amount of unabsorbed depreciation allowance or of the unabsorbed investment allowance, as the case may be, or the aggregate amount of such allowances in the case of a domestic company is less than one lakh rupees.

(4) Nothing contained in sections 234B and 234C shall apply to any shortfall in the payment of any tax due on the assessed tax or, as the case may be, returned income where such shortfall is on account of restricting the amount of depreciation allowance or investment allowance under this section and the assessee has paid the amount of shortfall before furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139.

Section 35. EXPENDITURE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.

(1) In respect of expenditure on scientific research, the following deductions shall be allowed – (i) Any expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure) laid out or expended on scientific research related to the business.

 Explanation : Where any such expenditure has been laid out or expended before the commencement of the business (not being expenditure laid out or expended before the 1st day of April, 1973) on payment of any salary [as defined in Explanation 2 below sub-section (5) of section 40A] to an employee engaged in such scientific research or on the purchase of materials used in such scientific research, the aggregate of the expenditure so laid out or expended within the three years immediately preceding the commencement of the business shall, to the extent it is certified by the prescribed authority 535 to have been laid out or expended on such scientific research, be deemed to have been laid out or expended in the previous year in which the business is commenced;

(ii) Any sum paid to a scientific research association which has as its object the undertaking of scientific research or to a university, college or other institution to be used for scientific research :

Provided that such association, university, college or institution is for the time being approved for the purposes of this clause by the prescribed authority by notification in the Official Gazette;

 (iii) Any sum paid to a university, college or other institution to be used for research in social science or statistical research :

Provided that such university, college or institution is for the time being approved for the purposes of this clause by the prescribed authority by notification in the Official Gazette;

 (iv) In respect of any expenditure of a capital nature on scientific research related to the business carried on by the assessee, such deduction as may be admissible under the provisions of sub-section (2) :

 Provided that the scientific research association, university, college or other institution referred to in clause (ii) or clause (iii) shall make an application in the prescribed form and manner to the prescribed authority for the purpose of grant of approval, or continuance thereof, under clause (ii) or, as the case may be, clause (iii) :

Provided further that the prescribed authority may, before granting approval under clause (ii) or clause (iii), call for such documents (including audited annual accounts) or information from the scientific research association, university, college or other institution as it thinks necessary in order to satisfy itself about the genuineness of the activities of the scientific research association, university, college or other institution and that authority may also make such inquiries as it may deem necessary in this behalf :

Provided also that any notification issued by the prescribed authority under clause (ii) or clause (iii) shall, at any one time, have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding three assessment years (including an assessment year or years commencing before the date on which such notification is issued) as may be specified in the notification.

 (2) For the purposes of clause (iv) of sub-section (1), - (i) In a case where such capital expenditure is incurred before the 1st day of April, 1967, one-fifth of the capital expenditure incurred in any previous year shall be deducted for that previous year; and the balance of the expenditure shall be deducted in equal instalments for each of the four immediately succeeding previous years;

(ia) In a case where such capital expenditure is incurred after the 31st day of March, 1967, the whole of such capital expenditure incurred in any previous year shall be deducted for that previous year :

Provided that no deduction shall be admissible under this clause in respect of any expenditure incurred on the acquisition of any land, whether the land is acquired as such or as part of any property, after the 29th day of February, 1984.

 Explanation 1 : Where any capital expenditure has been incurred before the commencement of the business, the aggregate of the expenditure so incurred within the three years immediately preceding the commencement of the business shall be deemed to have been incurred in the previous year in which the business is commenced;

 Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause, - (a) “Land” includes any interest in land; and (b) the acquisition of any land shall be deemed to have been made by the assessee on the date on which the instrument of transfer of such land to him has been registered under the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), or where he has taken or retained the possession of such land or any part thereof in part performance of a contract of the nature referred to in section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882), the date on which he has so taken or retained possession of such land or part;

 (ii) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (i), where an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature incurred before the 1st day of April, 1967, ceases to be used in a previous year for scientific research related to the business and the value of the asset at the time of the cessation, together with the aggregate of deductions already allowed under clause (i) falls short of the said expenditure, then - (a) There shall be allowed a deduction for that previous year of an amount equal to such deficiency, and (b) no deduction shall be allowed under that clause for that previous year or for any subsequent previous year;

 (iii) If the asset mentioned in clause (ii) is sold, without having been used for other purposes, in the year of cessation, the sale price shall be taken to be the value of the asset at the time of the cessation; and if the asset is sold, without having been used for other purposes, in a previous year subsequent to the year of cessation, and the sale price falls short of the value of the asset taken into account at the time of cessation, an amount equal to the deficiency shall be allowed as a deduction for the previous year in which the sale took place;

 (iv) Where a deduction is allowed for any previous year under this section in respect of expenditure represented wholly or partly by an asset, no deduction shall be allowed under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 32 for the same or any other previous year in respect of that asset;

 (v) Where the asset mentioned in clause (ii) is used in the business after it ceases to be used for scientific research related to that business, depreciation shall be admissible under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 32.

(2A) Where, before the 1st day of March, 1984, the assessee pays any sum (being any sum paid with a specified direction that the sum shall not be used for the acquisition of any land or building or construction of any building) to a scientific research association or university or college or other institution referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (1) or to a public sector company to be used for scientific research undertaken under a programme approved in this behalf by the prescribed authority having regard to the social, economic and industrial needs of India, then, - (a) There shall be allowed a deduction of a sum equal to one and one-third times the sum so paid; and

 (b) No deduction in respect of such sum shall be allowed under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) for the same or any other assessment year.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, “public sector company” shall have the same meaning as in clause (b) of the Explanation below sub-section (2B) of section 32A.

 (2AA) Where the assessee pays any sum to a National Laboratory or a University or an Indian Institute of Technology with a specific direction that the said sum shall be used for scientific research undertaken under a programme approved in this behalf by the prescribed authority, then - (a) There shall be allowed a deduction of a sum equal to one and one-fourth times the sum so paid; and

(b) No deduction in respect of such sum shall be allowed under any other provision of the Income-tax Act :

 Provided that the prescribed authority shall, before granting approval, satisfy itself about the feasibility of carrying out the scientific research and shall submit its report to the Director General in such form as may be prescribed.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “National Laboratory” means a scientific laboratory functioning at the national level under the aegis of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, the Indian Council of Medical Research, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Defence Research and Development Organisation, the Department of Electronics, the Department of Bio-Technology or the Department of Atomic Energy and which is approved as a National Laboratory by the prescribed authority in such manner as may be prescribed;

 (b) “University” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation to clause (ix) of section 47;

(c) “Indian Institute of Technology” shall have the same meaning as that of “Institute” in clause (g) of section 3 of the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 (59 of 1961).

(2AB)(1) Where a company engaged in the business of manufacture or production of any drugs, pharmaceuticals, electronic equipment, computers, telecommunication equipment, chemicals or any other article or thing notified by the Board incurs any expenditure on scientific research (not being expenditure in the nature of cost of any land or building) on in house research and development facility as approved by the prescribed authority, then, there shall be allowed a deduction of a sum equal to one and one-fourth times of the expenditure so incurred.

 (2) No deduction shall be allowed in respect of the expenditure mentioned in clause (1) under any other provision of this Act.

 (3) No company shall be entitled for deduction under clause (1) unless it enters into an agreement with the prescribed authority for co-operation in such research and development facility and for audit of the accounts maintained for that facility.

 (4) The prescribed authority shall submit its report in relation to the approval of the said facility to the Director-General in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

 (5) No deduction shall be allowed in respect of expenditure referred to in clause (1) which is incurred after the 31st day of March, 2000

(2B)(a) Where, before the 1st day of March, 1984, an assessee has incurred any expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure incurred on the acquisition of any land or building or construction of any building) on scientific research undertaken under a programme approved in this behalf by the prescribed authority having regard to the social, economic and industrial needs of India, he shall, subject to the provisions of this sub-section, be allowed a deduction of a sum equal to one and one-fourth times the amount of the expenditure certified by the prescribed authority to have been so incurred during the previous year.

 (b) Where a deduction has been allowed under clause (a) for any previous year in respect of any expenditure, no deduction in respect of such expenditure shall be allowed under clause (i) of sub-section (1) or clause (ia) of sub-section (2) for the same or any other previous year.

(c) Where a deduction is allowed for any previous year under this sub-section in respect of expenditure represented wholly or partly by an asset, no deduction shall be allowed in respect of that asset under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 32 for the same or any subsequent previous year.

 (d) Any deduction made under this sub-section in respect of any expenditure on scientific research in excess of the expenditure actually incurred shall be deemed to have been wrongly made for the purposes of this Act if the assessee fails to furnish within one year of the period allowed by the prescribed authority for completion of the programme, a certificate of its completion obtained from that authority and the provisions of sub-section (5B) of section 155 shall apply accordingly.

 (3) If any question arises under this section as to whether, and if so, to what extent, any activity constitutes or constituted, or any asset is or was being used for, scientific research, the Board shall refer the question to the prescribed authority, whose decision shall be final.

 (4) The provisions of sub-section (2) of section 32 shall apply in relation to deductions allowable under clause (iv) of sub-section (1) as they apply in relation to deductions allowable in respect of depreciation.

 (5) Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers to the amalgamated company (being an Indian company) any asset representing expenditure of a capital nature on scientific research, - (i) The amalgamating company shall not be allowed the deduction under clause (ii) or clause (iii) of sub-section (2); and

 (ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company if the latter had not so sold or otherwise transferred the asset.

Section 35A. EXPENDITURE ON ACQUISITION OF PATENT RIGHTS OR COPYRIGHTS.

(1) In respect of any expenditure of a capital nature incurred after the 28th day of February, 1966 but before the 1st day of April, 1998, on the acquisition of patent rights or copyrights (hereafter, in this section, referred to as rights) used for the purposes of the business, there shall, subject to and in accordance with the provisions of this section, be allowed for each of the relevant previous years, a deduction equal to the appropriate fraction of the amount of such expenditure.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Relevant previous year” means the fourteen previous years beginning with the previous year in which such expenditure is incurred or, where such expenditure is incurred before the commencement of the business, the fourteen previous years beginning with the previous year in which the business commenced :

Provided that where the rights commenced, that is to say, became effective, in any year prior to the previous year in which expenditure on the acquisition thereof was incurred by the assessee, this clause shall have effect with the substitution for the reference to fourteen years of a reference to fourteen years less the number of complete years, which, when the rights are acquired by the assessee, have elapsed since the commencement thereof, and if fourteen years have elapsed as aforesaid, of a reference to one year;

(ii) “Appropriate fraction” means the fraction the numerator of which is one and the denominator of which is the number of the relevant previous years.

(2) Where the rights come to an end without being subsequently revived or where the whole or any part of the rights is sold and the proceeds of the sale (so far as they consist of capital sums) are not less than the cost of acquisition thereof remaining unallowed, no deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed in respect of the previous year in which the rights come to an end or, as the case may be, the whole or any part of the rights is sold or in respect of any subsequent previous year.

 (3) Where the rights either come to an end without being subsequently revived or are sold in their entirety and the proceeds of the sale (so far as they consist of capital sums) are less than the cost of acquisition thereof remaining unallowed, a deduction equal to such cost remaining unallowed or, as the case may be, such cost remaining unallowed as reduced by the proceeds of the sale, shall be allowed in respect of the previous year in which the rights come to an end, or, as the case may be, are sold.

 (4) Where the whole or any part of the rights is sold and the proceeds of the sale (so far as they consist of capital sums) exceed the amount of the cost of acquisition thereof remaining unallowed, so much of the excess as does not exceed the difference between the cost of acquisition of the rights and the amount of such cost remaining unallowed shall be chargeable to income-tax as income of the business of the previous year in which the whole or any part of the rights is sold.

Explanation : Where the whole or any part of the rights is sold in a previous year in which the business is no longer in existence, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year.

(5) Where a part of the rights is sold and sub-section (4) does not apply, the amount of the deduction to be allowed under sub-section (1) shall be arrived at by – (a) Subtracting the proceeds of the sale (so far as theyconsist of capital sums) from the amount of the cost of acquisition of the rights remaining unallowed; and

(b) Dividing the remainder by the number of relevant previous years which have not expired at the beginning of the previous year during which the rights are sold.

 (6) Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers the rights to the amalgamated company (being an Indian company), – (i) The provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) shall not apply in the case of the amalgamating company, and

(ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company if the latter had not so sold or otherwise transferred the rights.

 (7) Where in a scheme of demerger, the demerged company sells or otherwise transfers the rights to the resulting company (being an Indian company), - (i) The provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) shall not apply in the case of the demerged company; and

 (ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the resulting company as they would have applied to the demerged company, if the latter had not sold or otherwise transferred the rights.

Section 35AB. EXPENDITURE ON KNOW-HOW.

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where the assessee has paid in any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or before the 1st day of April, 1998 any lump sum consideration for acquiring any know-how for use for the purposes of his business, one-sixth of the amount so paid shall be deducted in computing the profits and gains of the business for that previous year, and the balance amount shall be deducted in equal instalments for each of the five immediately succeeding previous years.

 (2) Where the know-how referred to in sub-section (1) is developed in a laboratory, university or institution referred to in sub-section (2B) of section 32A, one-third of the said lump sum consideration paid in the previous year by the assessee shall be deducted in computing the profits and gains of the business for that year, and the balance amount shall be deducted in equal instalments for each of the two immediately succeeding previous years.

 (3) Where there is a transfer of an undertaking under a scheme of amalgamation or demerger and the amalgamating or the demerged company is entitled to a deduction under this section, then, the amalgamated company or the resulting company, as the case may be, shall be entitled to claim deduction under this section in respect of such undertaking to the same extent and in respect of the residual period as it would have been allowable to the amalgamating company or the demerged company, as the case may be, had such amalgamation or demerger not taken place.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, “know-how” means any industrial information or technique likely to assist in the manufacture or processing of goods or in the working of a mine, oil well or other sources of mineral deposits (including the searching for, discovery or testing of deposits or the winning of access thereto).

Section 35ABB. EXPENDITURE FOR OBTAINING LICENCE TO OPERATE TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES.

(1) In respect of any expenditure, being in the nature of capital expenditure, incurred for acquiring any right to operate telecommunication services either before the commencement of the business to operate telecommunication services or thereafter at any time during any previous year 554e ] and for which payment has actually been made to obtain a licence, there shall, subject to and in accordance with the provisions of this section, be allowed for each of the relevant previous years, a deduction equal to the appropriate fraction of the amount of such expenditure.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, – (i) “Relevant previous years” means, – (A) In a case where the licence fee is actually paid before the commencement of the business to operate telecommunication services, the previous years beginning with the previous year in which such business commenced;

 (B) In any other case, the previous years beginning with the previous year in which the licence fee is actually paid, and the subsequent previous year or years during which the licence, for which the fee is paid, shall be in force;

(ii) “Appropriate fraction” means the fraction the numerator of which is one and the denominator of which is the total number of the relevant previous years;

 (iii) “Payment has actually been made” means the actual payment of expenditure irrespective of the previous year in which the liability for the expenditure was incurred according to the method of accounting regularly employed by the assessee.

 (2) Where the licence is transferred and the proceeds of the transfer (so far as they consist of capital sums) are less than the expenditure incurred remaining unallowed, a deduction equal to such expenditure remaining unallowed, as reduced by the proceeds of the transfer, shall be allowed in respect of the previous year in which the licence is transferred.

(3) Where the whole or any part of the licence is transferred and the proceeds of the transfer (so far as they consist of capital sums) exceed the amount of the expenditure incurred remaining unallowed, so much of the excess as does not exceed the difference between the expenditure incurred to obtain the licence and the amount of such expenditure remaining unallowed shall be chargeable to income-tax as profits and gains of the business in the previous year in which the licence has been transferred.

 Explanation : Where the licence is transferred in a previous year in which the business is no longer in existence, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year.

(4) Where the whole or any part of the licence is transferred and the proceeds of the transfer (so far as they consist of capital sums) are not less than the amount of expenditure incurred remaining unallowed, no deduction for such expenditure shall be allowed under sub-section (1) in respect of the previous year in which the licence is transferred or in respect of any subsequent previous year or years.

 (5) Where a part of the licence is transferred in a previous year and sub-section (3) does not apply, the deduction to be allowed under sub-section (1) for expenditure incurred remaining unallowed shall be arrived at by -

(a) Subtracting the proceeds of transfer (so far as they consist of capital sums) from the expenditure remaining unallowed; and

(b) Dividing the remainder by the number of relevant previous years which have not expired at the beginning of the previous year during which the licence is transferred.

 (6) Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers the licence to the amalgamated company (being an Indian company), – (i) The provisions of sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) shall not apply in the case of the amalgamating company; and

(ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company if the latter had not transferred the licence.

 (7) Where, in a scheme of demerger, the demerged company sells or otherwise transfers the licence to the resulting company (being an Indian company), - (i) The provisions of sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) shall not apply in the case of the demerged company; and

(ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the resulting company as they would have applied to the demerged company if the latter had not transferred the licence.”

 (8) Where a deduction for any previous year under sub-section (1) is claimed and allowed in respect of any expenditure referred to in that sub-section, no deduction shall be allowed under sub-section (1) of section 32 for the same previous year or any subsequent previous year.

Section 35AC. EXPENDITURE ON ELIGIBLE PROJECTS OR SCHEMES.

 (1) Where an assessee incurs any expenditure by way of payment of any sum to a public sector company or a local authority or to an association or institution approved by the National Committee for carrying out any eligible project or scheme, the assessee shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction of the amount of such expenditure incurred during the previous year :

 Provided that a company may, for claiming the deduction under this sub-section, incur expenditure either by way of payment of any sum as aforesaid or directly on the eligible project or scheme.

(2) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be allowed unless the assessee furnishes along with his return of income a certificate 554aa - (a) Where the payment is to a public sector company or a local authority or an association or institution referred to in sub-section (1), from such public sector company or local authority or, as the case may be, association or institution;

 (b) In any other case, from an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, in such form, manner and containing such particulars (including particulars relating to the progress in the work relating to the eligible project or scheme during the previous year) as may be prescribed.

 (3) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure referred to in sub-section (1), deduction shall not be allowed in respect of such expenditure under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

 (4) Where an association or institution is approved by the National Committee under sub-section (1), and subsequently that Committee is satisfied that the project or the scheme is not being carried on in accordance with all or any of the conditions subject to which approval was granted, it may, at any time, after giving a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed withdrawal to the concerned association or institution, withdraw the approval.

 5) Where any project or scheme has been notified as an eligible project or scheme under clause (b) of the Explanation and subsequently the National Committee is satisfied that the project or the scheme is not being carried out in accordance with all or any of the conditions subject to which such project or scheme was notified, such notification may be withdrawn in the same manner in which it was issued :

 Provided that a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed withdrawal shall be given by the National Committee to the concerned association, institution, public sector company or the local authority, as the case may be.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “National Committee” means the Committee constituted by the 554b Central Government, from amongst persons of eminence in public life, in accordance with the rules made under this Act;

 (b) “Eligible project or scheme” means such project or scheme for promoting the social and economic welfare of, or the uplift of, the public as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf on the recommendations of the National Committee.

Section 35B. EXPORT MARKETS DEVELOPMENT ALLOWANCE.

OMITTED BY THE DIRECT TAX LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1987, W.E.F. 1-4-1989

Section 35C. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ALLOWANCE.

OMITTED BY THE DIRECT TAX LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1987, W.E.F. 1-4-1989.

Section 35CC. RURAL DEVELOPMENT ALLOWANCE.

OMITTED BY THE DIRECT TAX LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1987, W.E.F. 1-4-1989

Section 35CCA. EXPENDITURE BY WAY OF PAYMENT TO ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES.

 (1) Where an assessee incurs any expenditure by way of payment of any sum - (a) To an association or institution, which has as its object the undertaking of any programme of rural development, to be used for carrying out any programme of rural development approved by the prescribed authority 560 ; or

(b) To an association or institution, which has as its object the training of persons for implementing programmes of rural development;

 (c) To a rural development fund set up and notified 563 by the Central Government in this behalf;

(d) To the National Urban Poverty Eradication Fund set up and notified by the Central Government in this behalf, the assessee shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) be allowed a deduction of the amount of such expenditure incurred during the previous year.

 (2) The deduction under clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall not be allowed in respect of expenditure by way of payment of any sum to any association or institution referred to in the said clause unless the assessee furnishes a certificate from such association or institution to the effect that - (a) The programme of rural development had been approved by the prescribed authority before the 1st day of March, 1983; and

 (b) Where such payment is made after the 28th day of February, 1983, such programme involves work by way of construction of any building or other structure (whether for use as a dispensary, school, training or welfare centre, workshop or for any other purpose) or the laying of any road or the construction or boring of a well or tube-well or the installation of any plant or machinery, and such work has commenced before the 1st day of March, 1983.

(2A) The deduction under clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall not be allowed in respect of expenditure by way of payment of any sum to any association or institution unless the assessee furnishes a certificate from such association or institution to the effect that – (a) The prescribed authority had approved the association or institution before the 1st day of March, 1983; and

 (b) The training of persons for implementing any programme of rural development had been started by the association or institution before the 1st day of March, 1983.

(2B) No certificate of the nature referred to in sub-section (2) or sub-section (2A) shall be issued by any association or institution unless such association or institution has obtained from the prescribed authority authorisation in writing to issue certificates of such nature.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, “programme of rural development” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 35CC 565a .

 (3) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure referred to in sub-section (1), deduction shall not be allowed in respect of such expenditure under section 35C or section 35CC or section 80G or any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

Section 35CCB. EXPENDITURE BY WAY OF PAYMENT TO ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PROGRAMMES OF CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES.

(1) Where an assessee incurs any expenditure by way of payment of any sum - (a) To an association or institution, which has as its object the undertaking of any programme of conservation of natural resources or of afforestation, to be used for carrying out any programme of conservation of natural resources or afforestation approved by the prescribed authority; or

 (b) To such fund for afforestation as may be notified by the Central Government, the assessee shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), be allowed a deduction of the amount of such expenditure incurred during the previous year.

(2) The deduction under clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall not be allowed with respect to expenditure by way of payment of any sum to any association or institution, unless such association or institution is for the time being approved in this behalf by the prescribed authority 568 :

 Provided that the prescribed authority shall not grant such approval for more than three years at a time.

(3) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure referred to in sub-section (1), deduction shall not be allowed in respect of such expenditure under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

Section 35D. AMORTISATION OF CERTAIN PRELIMINARY XPENSES.

 (1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) who is resident in India, incurs, after the 31st day of March, 1970, any expenditure specified in sub-section (2), - (i) Before the commencement of his business, or

(ii) After the commencement of his business in connection with the extension of his industrial undertaking or in connection with his setting up a new industrial unit, the assessee shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction of an amount equal to one-tenth of such expenditure for each of the ten successive previous years beginning with the previous year in which the business commences or, as the case may be, the previous year in which the extension of the industrial undertaking is completed or the new industrial unit commences production or operation.

Provided that where an assessee incurs after the 31st day of March, 1998, any expenditure specified in sub-section (2), the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “an amount equal to one-tenth of such expenditure for each of the ten successive previous years”, the words “an amount equal to one-fifth of such expenditure for each of the five successive previous years” had been substituted.

 (2) The expenditure referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the expenditure specified in any one or more of the following clauses, namely :- (a) Expenditure in connection with – (i) Preparation of feasibility report;

(ii) Preparation of project report;

(iii) Conducting market survey or any other survey necessary for the business of the assessee;

 (iv) Engineering services relating to the business of the assessee :

 Provided that the work in connection with the preparation of the feasibility report or the project report or the conducting of market survey or of any other survey or the engineering services referred to in this clause is carried out by the assessee himself or by a concern which is for the time being approved in this behalf by the Board;

 (b) Legal charges for drafting any agreement between the assessee and any other person for any purpose relating to the setting up or conduct of the business of the assessee;

 (c) Where the assessee is a company, also expenditure - (i) By way of legal charges for drafting the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the company;

 (ii) On printing of the Memorandum and Articles of Association;

(iii) By way of fees for registering the company under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(iv) In connection with the issue, for public subscription, of shares in or debentures of the company, being underwriting commission, brokerage and charges for drafting, typing, printing and advertisement of the prospectus;

 (d) Such other items of expenditure (not being expenditure eligible for any allowance or deduction under any other provision of this Act) as may be prescribed.

 (3) Where the aggregate amount of the expenditure referred to in sub-section (2) exceeds an amount calculated at two and one-half per cent – (a) Of the cost of the project, or

 (b) Where the assessee is an Indian company, at the option of the company, of the capital employed in the business of the company, the excess shall be ignored for the purpose of computing the deduction allowable under sub-section (1).

 Provided that where the aggregate amount of expenditure referred to in sub-section (2) is incurred after the 31st day of March, 1998, the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “two and one-half per cent, the words “five per cent had been substituted.

 Explanation : In this sub-section, - (a) “Cost of the project” means - (i) In a case referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1), the actual cost of the fixed assets, being land, buildings, leaseholds, plant, machinery, furniture, fittings and railway sidings (including expenditure on development of land and buildings), which are shown in the books of the assessee as on the last day of the previous year in which the business of the assessee commences;

(ii) In a case referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (1), the actual cost of the fixed assets, being land, buildings, leaseholds, plant, machinery, furniture, fittings and railway sidings (including expenditure on development of land and buildings), which are shown in the books of the assessee as on the last day of the previous year in which the extension of the industrial undertaking is completed or, as the case may be, the new industrial unit commences production or operation, in so far as such fixed assets have been acquired or developed in connection with the extension of the industrial undertaking or the setting up of the new industrial unit of the assessee;

 (b) “Capital employed in the business of the company” means - (i) In a case referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1), the aggregate of the issued share capital, debentures and long-term borrowings as on the last day of the previous year in which the business of the company commences;

(ii) In a case referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (1), the aggregate of the issued share capital, debentures and long-term borrowings as on the last day of the previous year in which the extension of the industrial undertaking is completed, or, as the case may be, the new industrial unit commences production or operation, in so far as such capital, debentures and long-term borrowings have been issued or obtained in connection with the extension of the industrial undertaking or setting up of the new industrial unit of the company;

(c) “Long-term borrowings” means - (i) Any moneys borrowed by the company from the Government or the Industrial Finance Corporation of India or the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India or any other financial institution which is for the time being approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36 or any banking institution (not being a financial institution referred to above), or

 (ii) Any moneys borrowed or debt incurred by it in a foreign country in respect of the purchase outside India of capital plant and machinery, where the terms under which such moneys are borrowed or the debt is incurred provide for the repayment thereof during a period of not less than seven years.

 (4) Where the assessee is a person other than a company or a co-operative society, no deduction shall be admissible under sub-section (1) unless the accounts of the assessee for the year or years in which the expenditure specified in sub-section (2) is incurred have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income for the first year in which the deduction under this section is claimed, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed 570 .

(5) Where the undertaking of an Indian company which is entitled to the deduction under sub-section (1) is transferred, before the expiry of the period of ten years specified in sub-section (1), to another Indian company in a scheme of amalgamation, - (i) No deduction shall be admissible under sub-section (1) in the case of the amalgamating company for the previous year in which the amalgamation takes place; and

(ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company if the amalgamation had not taken place.

(5A) Where the undertaking of an Indian company which is entitled to the deduction under sub-section (1) is transferred, before the expiry of the period specified in sub-section (1), to another company in a scheme of demerger, -

 (i) No deduction shall be admissible under sub-section (1) in the case of the demerged company for the previous year in which the demerger takes place; and

 (ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the resulting company, as they would have applied to the demerged company, if the demerger had not taken place.

 (6) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure specified in sub-section (2), the expenditure in respect of which deduction is so allowed shall not qualify for deduction under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

Section 35DD . AMORTISATION OF EXPENDITURE IN CASE OF AMALGAMATION OR DEMERGER.

 (1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company, incurs any expenditure, on or after the 1st day of April, 1999, wholly and exclusively for the purposes of amalgamation or demerger of an undertaking, the assessee shall be allowed a deduction of an amount equal to one-fifth of such expenditure for each of the five successive previous years beginning with the previous year in which the amalgamation or demerger takes place.

 (2) No deduction shall be allowed in respect of the expenditure mentioned in sub-section (1) under any other provision of this Act.

Section 35E . DEDUCTION FOR EXPENDITURE ON PROSPECTING, ETC., FOR CERTAIN MINERALS.

(1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) who is resident in India, is engaged in any operations relating to prospecting for, or extraction or production of, any mineral and incurs, after the 31st day of March, 1970, any expenditure specified in sub-section (2), the assessee shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed for each one of the relevant previous years a deduction of an amount equal to one-tenth of the amount of such expenditure.

 (2) The expenditure referred to in sub-section (1) is that incurred by the assessee after the date specified in that sub-section at any time during the year of commercial production and any one or more of the four years immediately preceding that year, wholly and exclusively on any operations relating to prospecting for any mineral or group of associated minerals specified in Part A or Part B, respectively, of the Seventh Schedule or on the development of a mine or other natural deposit of any such mineral or group of associated minerals :

 Provided that there shall be excluded from such expenditure any portion thereof which is met directly or indirectly by any other person or authority and any sale, salvage, compensation or insurance moneys realised by the assessee in respect of any property or rights brought into existence as a result of the expenditure.

 (3) Any expenditure - (i) On the acquisition of the site of the source of any mineral or group of associated minerals referred to in sub-section (2) or of any rights in or over such site;

 (ii) On the acquisition of the deposits of such mineral or group of associated minerals or of any rights in or over such deposits; or

(iii) Of a capital nature in respect of any building, machinery, plant or furniture for which allowance by way of depreciation is admissible under section 32, shall not be deemed to be expenditure incurred by the assessee for any of the purposes specified in sub-section (2).

 (4) The deduction to be allowed under sub-section (1) for any relevant previous year shall be – (a) An amount equal to one-tenth of the expenditure specified in sub-section (2) (such one-tenth being hereafter in this sub-section referred to as the instalment); or

 (b) Such amount as is sufficient to reduce to nil the income (as computed before making the deduction under this section) of that previous year arising from the commercial exploitation [whether or not such commercial exploitation is as a result of the operations or development referred to in sub-section (2)] of any mine or other natural deposit of the mineral or any one or more of the minerals in a group of associated minerals as aforesaid in respect of which the expenditure was incurred, whichever amount is less :

 Provided that the amount of the instalment relating to any relevant previous year, to the extent to which it remains unallowed, shall be carried forward and added to the instalment relating to the previous year next following and deemed to be part of that instalment, and so on, for succeeding previous years, so, however, that no part of any instalment shall be carried forward beyond the tenth previous year as reckoned from the year of commercial production.

(5) For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Operation relating to prospecting” means any operation undertaken for the purpose of exploring, locating or proving deposits of any mineral, and includes any such operation which proves to be infructuous or abortive;

 (b) “Year of commercial production” means the previous year in which as a result of any operation relating to prospecting, commercial production of any mineral or any one or more of the minerals in a group of associated minerals specified in Part A or Part B, respectively, of the Seventh Schedule, commences;

(c) “Relevant previous years” means the ten previous years beginning with the year of commercial production.

 (6) Where the assessee is a person other than a company or a co-operative society, no deduction shall be admissible under sub-section (1) unless the accounts of the assessee for the year or years in which the expenditure specified in sub-section (2) is incurred have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income for the first year in which the deduction under this section is claimed, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed 571 .

(7) Where the undertaking of an Indian company which is entitled to the deduction under sub-section (1) is transferred, before the expiry of the period of ten years specified in sub-section (1), to another Indian company in a scheme of amalgamation - (i) No deduction shall be admissible under sub-section (1) in the case of the amalgamating company for the previous year in which the amalgamation takes place; and

(ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company if the amalgamation had not taken place.

 (7A) Where the undertaking of an Indian company which is entitled to the deduction under sub-section (1) is transferred, before the expiry of the period of ten years specified in sub-section (1), to another Indian company in a scheme of demerger, - (i) No deduction shall be admissible under sub-section (1) in the case of the demerged company for the previous year in which the demerger takes place; and

(ii) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the resulting company as they would have applied to the demerged company, if the demerger had not taken place.

(8) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure specified in sub-section (2), the expenditure in respect of which is so allowed shall not qualify for deduction under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

Section 36. OTHER DEDUCTIONS.

(1) The deductions provided for in the following clauses shall be allowed in respect of the matters dealt with therein, in computing the income referred to in section 28 - (i) The amount of any premium paid in respect of insurance against risk of damage or destruction of stocks or stores used for the purposes of the business or profession;

 (ia) The amount of any premium paid by a federal milk co-operative society to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the life of the cattle owned by a member of a co-operative society, being a primary society engaged in supplying milk raised by its members to such federal milk co-operative society;

(ib) The amount of any premium paid by cheque by the assessee as an employer to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of his employees under a scheme framed in this behalf by the General Insurance Corporation of India formed under section 9 of the General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (57 of 1972), and approved by the Central Government;

 (ii) Any sum paid to an employee as bonus or commission for services rendered, where such sum would not have been payable to him as profits or dividend if it had not been paid as bonus or commission;

(iia) A sum equal to one and one-third times the amount of the expenditure incurred on payment of any salary for any period of employment before the 1st day of March, 1984 to an employee who, as at the end of the previous year, - (a) Is totally blind, or

(b) Is subject to or suffers from a permanent physical disability (other than blindness) which has the effect of reducing substantially his capacity to engage in a gainful employment or occupation :

 Provided that the assessee produces before the Assessing Officer, in respect of the first assessment year for which deduction is claimed in relation to each such employee under this clause, – (i) In a case referred to in sub-clause (a), a certificate as to his total blindness from a registered medical practitioner being an oculist; and

(ii) In a case referred to in sub-clause (b), a certificate as to the permanent physical disability referred to in the said sub-clause from a registered medical practitioner :

 Provided further that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in the case of an employee whose income in the previous year chargeable under the head ”Salaries” exceeds twenty thousand rupees.

 Explanation 1 : In this clause, “salary” includes the pay, allowances, bonus or commission payable monthly or otherwise.

 Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where a deduction under this clause is allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure, deduction shall not be allowed in respect of such expenditure under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year; 575 ]

(iii) The amount of the interest paid in respect of capital borrowed for the purposes of the business or profession.

Explanation : Recurring subscriptions paid periodically by shareholders or subscribers in Mutual Benefit Societies which fulfil such conditions as may be prescribed, shall be deemed to be capital borrowed within the meaning of this clause;

(iv) Any sum paid by the assessee as an employer by way of contribution towards a recognised provident fund or an approved superannuation fund, subject to such limits as may be prescribed 579 for the purpose of recognising the provident fund or approving the superannuation fund, as the case may be; and subject to such conditions 580 as the Board may think fit to specify in cases where the contributions are not in the nature of annual contributions of fixed amounts or annual contributions fixed on some definite basis by reference to the income chargeable under the head “Salaries” or to the contributions or to the numbers of members of the fund;

(v) Any sum paid by the assessee as an employer by way of contribution towards an approved gratuity fund created by him for the exclusive benefit of his employees under an irrevocable trust;

 (va) Any sum received by the assessee from any of his employees to which the provisions of sub-clause (x) of clause (24) of section 2 apply, if such sum is credited by the assessee to the employee’s account in the relevant fund or funds on or before the due date.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “due date” means the date by which the assessee is required as an employer to credit an employee’s contribution to the employee’s account in the relevant fund under any Act, rule, order or notification issued thereunder or under any standing order, award, contract of service or otherwise;

 (vi) In respect of animals which have been used for the purposes of the business or profession otherwise than as stock-in-trade and have died or become permanently useless for such purposes, the difference between the actual cost to the assessee of the animals and the amount, if any, realised in respect of the carcasses or animals;

 (vii) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the amount of any bad debt or part thereof which is written off as irrecoverable in the accounts of the assessee for the previous year:

Provided that in the case of an assessee to which clause (viia) applies, the amount of the deduction relating to any such debt or part thereof shall be limited to the amount by which such debt or part thereof exceeds the credit balance in the provision for bad and doubtful debts account made under that clause;

(viia) In respect of any provision for bad and doubtful debts made by - (a) A scheduled bank not being a bank incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India or a non-scheduled bank, an amount not exceeding five per cent of the total income (computed before making any deduction under this clause and Chapter VI-A) and an amount not exceeding [ 585c ten per cent of the aggregate average advances made by the rural branches of such bank computed in the prescribed manner;

Provided that a scheduled bank or a non-scheduled bank referred to in this sub-clause shall, at its option, be allowed in any of the relevant assessment years, deduction in respect of any provision made by it for any assets classified by the Reserve Bank of India as doubtful assets or loss assets in accordance with the guidelines issued by it in this behalf, for an amount not exceeding five per cent. of the amount of such assets shown in the books of account of the bank on the last day of the previous year.

 Explanation. - For the purposes of this sub-clause, "relevant assessment years" means the five consecutive assessment years commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2000 and ending before the 1st day of April, 2005. 585g

 (b) A bank, being a bank incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India, an amount not exceeding five per cent of the total income (computed before making any deduction under this clause and Chapter VI-A);

(c) A public financial institution or a State financial corporation or a State industrial investment corporation, an amount not exceeding five per cent of the total income (computed before making any deduction under this clause and Chapter VI-A).

 xplanation : For the purposes of this clause - (i) "Non-scheduled bank" means a banking company 585f as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949) which is not a scheduled bank;

 (a) "Rural branch" means a branch of a scheduled bank or a non-scheduled bank situated in a place which has a population of not more than ten thousand according to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year;

(ii) "Scheduled bank" means the State Bank of India constituted under the State Bank of India Act, 1955, (23 of 1955) a subsidiary bank as defined in the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, (38 of 1959) 1959, a corresponding new bank constituted under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970, (5 of 1970), or under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1980 (40 of 1980), or any other bank being a bank included in the Second Schedule to the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), but does not include a co-operative bank;

(iii) "Public financial institution" shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(iv) "State financial corporation" means a financial corporation established under section 3 or section 3A or an institution notified under section 46 of the State Financial Corporations Act, 1951 (63 of 1951);

(v) "State industrial investment corporation" means a Government company within the meaning of section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) engaged in the business of providing long-term finance for industrial projects and approved by the Central Government under clause (viii) of this sub-section;

(viii) In respect of any special reserve created and maintained by a financial corporation which is engaged in providing long-term finance for industrial or agricultural development or development of infrastructure facility in India or by a public company formed and registered in India with the main object of carrying on the business of providing long-term finance for construction or purchase of houses in India for residential purposes, an amount not exceeding forty per cent of the profits derived from such business of providing long-term finance (computed under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" before making any deduction under this clause 590a ]) carried to such reserve account :

Provided that the corporation or as the case may be the company is for the time being approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause :

Provided further that where the aggregate of the amounts carried to such reserve account from time to time exceeds twice the amount of the paid up share capital and general reserves of the corporation or, as the case may be, the company, no allowance under this clause shall be made in respect of such excess;

 Explanation : In this clause, - (a) “Financial corporation” shall include a public company and a Government company;

 (b) “Public company” 595 shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

 (c) “Government company” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).

 (d) “Infrastructure facility” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (23G) of section 10;

(e) “Long-term finance” means any loan or advance where the terms under which moneys are loaned or advanced provide for repayment along with interest thereof during a period of not less than five years;

 (ix) Any expenditure bona fide incurred by a company for the purpose of promoting family planning amongst its employees :

 Provided that where such expenditure or any part thereof is of a capital nature, one-fifth of such expenditure shall be deducted for the previous year in which it was incurred; and the balance thereof shall be deducted in equal instalments for each of the four immediately succeeding previous years :

 Provided further that the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 32 or sub-section (2) of section 72 shall apply in relation to deductions allowable under this clause as they apply in relation to deductions allowable in respect of depreciation :

Provided further that the provisions of clauses (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) of sub-section (2) and sub-section (5) of section 35, of sub-section (3) of section 41 and of Explanation 1 to clause (1) of section 43 shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature for the purposes of promoting family planning as they apply in relation to an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature on scientific research;

(x) Any sum paid by a public financial institution by way of contribution towards any fund specified under clause (23E) of section 10.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “public financial institution” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).

 (xi) Any expenditure incurred by the assessee, on or after the 1st day of April, 1999 but before the 1st day of April, 2000, wholly and exclusively in respect of a non-Y2K compliant computer system, owned by the assessee and used for the purposes of his business or profession, so as to make such computer system Y2K compliant computer system :

Provided that no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of such expenditure under any other provisions of this Act :

 Provided further that no such deduction shall be admissible unless the assessee furnishes in the prescribed form, along with the return of income, the report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed in accordance with the provisions of this clause.

 Explanation. – For the purposes of this clause, - (a) “Computer system” means a device or collection of devices including input and output support devices and excluding calculators which are not programmable and capable of being used in conjunction with external files, or more of which contain computer programmes, electronic instructions, input data and output data, that performs functions including, but not limited to, logic, arithmetic, data storage and retrieval, communication and control;

(b) “Y2K compliant computer system” means a computer system capable of correctly processing, providing or receiving data relating to date within and between the twentieth and twenty-first century.

 (2) In making any deduction for a bad debt or part thereof, the following provisions shall apply – (i) No such deduction shall be allowed unless such debt or part thereof has been taken into account in computing the income of the assessee of the previous year in which the amount of such debt or part thereof is written off or of an earlier previous year, or represents money lent in the ordinary course of the business of banking or money-lending which is carried on by the assessee;

 (ii) If the amount ultimately recovered on any such debt or part of debt is less than the difference between the debt or part and the amount so deducted, the deficiency shall be deductible in the previous year in which the ultimate recovery is made;

 (iii) Any such debt or part of debt may be deducted if it has already been written off as irrecoverable in the accounts of an earlier previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, or any earlier assessment year), but the Assessing Officer had not allowed it to be deducted on the ground that it had not been established to have become a bad debt in that year;

 (iv) Where any such debt or part of debt is written off as irrecoverable in the accounts of the previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, or any earlier assessment year) and the Assessing Officer is satisfied that such debt or part became a bad debt in any earlier previous year not falling beyond a period of four previous years immediately preceding the previous year in which such debt or part is written off, provisions of sub-section (6) of section 155 shall apply;

 (v) Where such debt or part of debt relates to advances made by an assessee to which clause (viia) of sub-section (1) applies, no such deduction shall be allowed unless the assessee has debited the amount of such debt or part of debt in that previous year to the provision for bad and doubtful debts account made under that clause.

Section 37. GENERAL.

 (1) Any expenditure (not being expenditure of the nature described in sections 30 to 36 and not being in the nature of capital expenditure or personal expenses of the assessee), laid out or expended wholly and exclusively for the purposes of the business or profession shall be allowed in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

 Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any expenditure incurred by an assessee for any purpose which is an offence or which is prohibited by law shall not be deemed to have been incurred for the purpose of business or profession and no deduction or allowance shall be made in respect of such expenditure.

 (2B) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), no allowance shall be made in respect of expenditure incurred by an assessee on advertisement in any souvenir, brochure, tract, pamphlet or the like published by a political party.

Section 38. BUILDING, ETC., PARTLY USED FOR BUSINESS, ETC., OR NOT EXCLUSIVELY SO USED.

(1) Where a part of any premises is used as dwelling house by the assessee, - (a) The deduction under sub-clause (i) of clause (a) of section 30, in the case of rent, shall be such amount as the Assessing Officer may determine having regard to the proportionate annual value of the part used for the purpose of the business or profession, and in the case of any sum paid for repairs, such sum as is proportionate to the part of the premises used for the purpose of the business or profession;

 (b) The deduction under clause (b) of section 30 shall be such sum as the Assessing Officer may determine having regard to the part so used.

(2) Where any building, machinery, plant or furniture is not exclusively used for the purposes of the business or profession, the deductions under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) and clause (c) of section 30, clauses (i) and (ii) of section 31 and clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 32 shall be restricted to a fair proportionate part thereof which the Assessing Officer may determine, having regard to the user of such building, machinery, plant or furniture for the purposes of the business or profession.

Section 39 . MANAGING AGENCY COMMISSION.

631 OMITTED BY THE DIRECT TAX LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1987, W.E.F. 1-4-1989.

Section 40. AMOUNTS NOT DEDUCTIBLE.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in sections 30 to 38, the following amounts shall not be deducted in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”, - (a) In the case of any assessee - (i) Any interest (not being interest on a loan issued for public subscription before the 1st day of April, 1938), royalty, fees for technical services or other sum chargeable under this Act, which is payable outside India, on which tax has not been paid or deducted under Chapter XVII-B :

 Provided that where in respect of any such sum, tax has been paid or deducted under Chapter XVII-B in any subsequent year, such sum shall be allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the previous year in which such tax has been paid or deducted.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, - (A) “Royalty” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

(B) “Fees for technical services” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

 (ii) Any sum paid on account of any rate or tax levied on the profits or gains of any business or profession or assessed at a proportion of, or otherwise on the basis of, any such profits or gains;

 (iia) Any sum paid on account of wealth-tax.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, “wealth-tax” means wealth-tax chargeable under the Wealth-tax Act, 1957 (27 of 1927) , or any tax of a similar character chargeable under any law in force in any country outside India or any tax chargeable under such law with reference to the value of the assets of, or the capital employed in, a business or profession carried on by the assessee, whether or not the debts of the business or profession are allowed as a deduction in computing the amount with reference to which such tax is charged, but does not include any tax chargeable with reference to the value of any particular asset or the business or profession;

 (iii) Any payment which is chargeable under the head “Salaries”, if it is payable outside India and if the tax has not been paid thereon nor deducted therefrom under Chapter XVII-B;

(iv) Any payment to a provident or other fund established for the benefit of employees of the assessee, unless the assessee has made effective arrangements to secure that tax shall be deducted at source from any payment made from the fund which are chargeable to tax under the head “salaries”;

(b) In the case of any firm assessable as such, - (i) Any payment of salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called (hereinafter referred to as remuneration) to any partner who is not a working partner; or

(ii) Any payment of remuneration to any partner who is a working partner, or of interest to any partner, which, in either case, is not authorised by, or is not in accordance with, the terms of the partnership deed; or

 (iii) Any payment of remuneration to any partner who is a working partner, or of interest to any partner, which, in either case, is authorised by, and is in accordance with, the terms of the partnership deed, but which relates to any period (falling prior to the date of such partnership deed) for which such payment was not authorised by, or is not in accordance with, any earlier partnership deed, so, however, that the period of authorisation for such payment by any earlier partnership deed does not cover any period prior to the date of such earlier partnership deed; or

 (iv) Any payment of interest to any partner which is authorised by, and is in accordance with, the terms of the partnership deed and relates to any period falling after the date of such partnership deed in so far as such amount exceeds the amount calculated at the rate of eighteen per cent simple interest per annum; or

 (v) Any payment of remuneration to any partner who is a working partner, which is authorised by, and is in accordance with, the terms of the partnership deed and relates to any period falling after the date of such partnership deed in so far as the amount of such payment to all the partners during the previous year exceeds the aggregate amount computed as hereunder :- (1) In case of a firm carrying on a profession referred to in section 44AA or which is notified for the purpose of that section -

 (a) On the first Rs. 1,00,000 of the Rs. 50,000 or at the rate book-profit or in case of a loss of 90 per cent of the book-profit, whichever is more;

(b) On the next Rs. 1,00,000 of the at the rate of 60 per cent; book-profit

(c) On the balance of the book-profit at the rate of 40 per cent;

(2) In the case of any other firm – (a) On the first Rs. 75,000 of the Rs. 50,000 or at the rate of book-profit or in case of a loss 90 per cent of the book-profit, whichever is more;

 (b) On the next Rs. 75,000 of the book-profit at the rate of 60 per cent;

(c) On the balance of the book-profit at the rate of 40 per cent :

Provided that in relation to any payment under this clause to the partner during the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1993, the terms of the partnership deed may, at any time during the said previous year, provide for such payment.

Explanation 1 : Where an individual is a partner in a firm on behalf, or for the benefit, of any other person (such partner and the other person being hereinafter referred to as “partner in a representative capacity” and “person so represented”, respectively), – (i) Interest paid by the firm to such individual otherwise than as partner in a representative capacity, shall not be taken into account for the purposes of this clause;

(ii) Interest paid by the firm to such individual as partner in a representative capacity and interest paid by the firm to the person so represented shall be taken into account for the purposes of this clause.

 Explanation 2. : Where an individual is a partner in a firm otherwise than as partner in a representative capacity, interest paid by the firm to such individual shall not be taken into account for the purposes of this clause, if such interest is received by him on behalf, or for the benefit, of any other person.

Explanation 3 : For the purposes of this clause, “book-profit” means the net profit, as shown in the profit and loss account for the relevant previous year, computed in the manner laid down in Chapter IV-D as increased by the aggregate amount of the remuneration paid or payable to all the partners of the firm if such amount has been deducted while computing the net profit.

 Explanation 4 : For the purposes of this clause, “working partner” means an individual who is actively engaged in conducting the affairs of the business or profession of the firm of which he is a partner.

(ba) In the case of an association of persons or body of individuals (other than a company or a co-operative society or a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 [21 of 1860], or under any law corresponding to that Act in force in any part of India), any payment of interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called, made by such association or body to a member of such association or body.

 Explanation 1 : Where interest is paid by an association or body to any member thereof who has also paid interest to the association or body, the amount of interest to be disallowed under this clause shall be limited to the amount by which the payment of interest by the association or body to the member exceeds the payment of interest by the member to the association or body.

Explanation 2 : Where an individual is a member of an association or body on behalf, or for the benefit, of any other person (such member and the other person being hereinafter referred to as “member in a representative capacity” and “person so represented”, respectively), - (i) Interest paid by the association or body to such individual or by such individual to the association or body otherwise than as member in a representative capacity, shall not be taken into account for the purposes of this clause;

 (ii) Interest paid by the association or body to such individual or by such individual to the association or body as member in a representative capacity and interest paid by the association or body to the person so represented or by the person so represented to the association or body, shall be taken into account for the purposes of this clause.

 Explanation 3 : Where an individual is a member of an association or body otherwise than as member in a representative capacity, interest paid by the association or body to such individual shall not be taken into account for the purposes of this clause, if such interest is received by him on behalf, or for the benefit, of any other person.

Section 40A. EXPENSES OR PAYMENTS NOT DEDUCTIBLE IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES.

 (1) The provisions of this section shall have effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other provision of this Act relating to the computation of income under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

 (2)(a) Where the assessee incurs any expenditure in respect of which payment has been or is to be made to any person referred to in clause (b) of this sub-section, and the Assessing Officer is of opinion that such expenditure is excessive or unreasonable having regard to the fair market value of the goods, services or facilities for which the payment is made or the legitimate needs of the business or profession of the assessee or the benefit derived by or accruing to him therefrom, so much of the expenditure as is so considered by him to be excessive or unreasonable shall not be allowed as a deduction;

(b) The persons referred to in clause (a) are the following, namely :- (i) Where the assessee is an any relative of the assessee; individual

(ii) Where the assessee is a any director of the company, company, firm, association partner of the firm, or member of of persons or Hindu undivided the association or family, or any family relative of such director, partner or member;

(iii) Any individual who has a substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee, or any relative of such individual;

(iv) A company, firm, association of persons or Hindu undivided family having substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee or any director, partner or member of such company, firm, association or family, or any relative of such director, partner or member;

 (v) A company, firm, association of persons or Hindu undivided family of which a director, partner or member, as the case may be, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee; or any director, partner or member of such company, firm, association or family or any relative of such director, partner or member;

 (vi) Any person who carries on a business or profession, - (A) Where the assessee being an individual, or any relative of such assessee, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of that person; or

(B) Where the assessee being a company, firm, association of persons or Hindu undivided family, or any director of such company, partner of such firm or member of the association or family, or any relative of such director, partner, or member, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of that person.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, a person shall be deemed to have a substantial interest in a business or profession, if - (a) In a case where the business or profession is carried on by a company, such person is, at any time during the previous year, the beneficial owner of shares (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a right to participate in profits) carrying not less than twenty per cent of the voting power; and

(b) In any other case, such person is, at any time during the previous year, beneficially entitled to not less than twenty per cent of the profits of such business or profession.

 (3) Where the assessee incurs any expenditure 645 in respect of which payment is made, after such date (not being later than 31st day of March, 1969), as may be specified in this behalf by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette, in a sum exceeding twenty thousand rupees otherwise than by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft, twenty per cent of such expenditure shall not be allowed as a deduction:

Provided that where an allowance has been made in the assessment for any year not being an assessment year commencing prior to the 1st day of April, 1969, in respect of any liability incurred by the assessee for any expenditure and subsequently during any previous year the assessee makes any payment in respect thereof in a sum exceeding twenty thousand rupees otherwise than by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft, the allowance originally made shall be deemed to have been wrongly made and the Assessing Officer may recompute the total income of the assessee for the previous year in which such liability was incurred and make the necessary amendment, and the provisions of section 154 shall, so far as may be, apply thereto, the period of four years specified in sub-section (7) of that section being reckoned from the end of the assessment year next following the previous year in which the payment was so made :

Provided further that no disallowance under this sub-section shall be made where any payment in a sum exceeding twenty thousand rupees is made otherwise than by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft, in such cases and under such circumstances as may be prescribed, having regard to the nature and extent of banking facilities available, considerations of business expediency and other relevant factors.

 (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any contract, where any payment in respect of any expenditure has to be made by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft in order that such expenditure may not be disallowed as a deduction under sub-section (3), then the payment may be made by such cheque or draft; and where the payment is so made or tendered, no person shall be allowed to raise, in any suit or other proceeding, a plea based on the ground that the payment was not made or tendered in cash or in any other manner.

 (7)(a) Subject to the provisions of clause (b), no deduction shall be allowed in respect of any provision (whether called as such or by any other name) made by the assessee for the payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason.

 (b) Nothing in clause (a) shall apply in relation to – (i) Any provision made by the assessee for the purpose of payment of a sum by way of any contribution towards an approved gratuity fund, or for the purpose of payment of any gratuity, that has become payable during the previous year;

 (ii) Any provision made by the assessee for the previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1973, but before the 1st day of April, 1976, to the extent the amount of such provision does not exceed the admissible amount, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:-

 (1) The provision is made in accordance with an actuarial valuation of the ascertainable liability of the assessee for payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason;

(2) The assessee creates an approved gratuity fund for the exclusive benefit of his employees under an irrevocable trust, the application for the approval of the fund having been made before the 1st day of January, 1976; and

 (3) A sum equal to at least fifty per cent. of the admissible amount, or where any amount has been utilised out of such provision for the purpose of payment of any gratuity before the creation of the approved gratuity fund, a sum equal to at least fifty per cent. of the admissible amount as reduced by the amount so utilised is paid by the assessee by way of contribution to the approved gratuity fund before the 1st day of April, 1976, and the balance of the admissible amount, or, as the case may be, the balance of the admissible amount as reduced by the amount so utilised, is paid by the assessee by way of such contribution before the 1st day of April, 1977.

 Explanation 1 : For the purpose of sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of this sub-section, “admissible amount” means the amount of the provision made by the assessee for the payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason, to the extent such amount does not exceed an amount calculated at the rate of eight and one third per cent. of the salary [as defined in clause (h) of rule 2 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule] of each employee entitled to the payment of such gratuity for each year of his service in respect of which such provision is made.

Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where any provision made by the assessee for the payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason has been allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the assessee for any assessment year, any sum paid out of such provision by way of contribution towards an approved gratuity fund or by way of gratuity to any employee shall not be allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the assessee of the previous year in which the sum is so paid.

 (9) No deduction shall be allowed in respect of any sum paid by the assessee as an employer towards the setting up or formation of, or as contribution to, any fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860) or other institution, for any purpose, except where such sum is so paid, for the purposes and to the extent provided by or under clause (iv) or clause (v) of sub-section (1) of section 36 or, as required by or under any other law for the time being in force.

 (10) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (9), where the Assessing Officer is satisfied that the fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution referred to in that sub-section has, before the 1st day of March, 1984, bonafide laid out or expended any expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure) wholly and exclusively for the welfare of the employees of the assessee referred to in sub-section (9) out of the sum referred to in that sub-section, the amount of such expenditure shall, in case no deduction has been allowed to the assessee in respect of such sum and subject to the other provisions of this Act, be deducted in computing the income referred to in section 28 of the assessee of the previous year in which such expenditure is so laid out or expended, as if such expenditure had been laid out or expended by the assessee.

(11) Where the assessee has, before the 1st day of March, 1984, paid any sum to any fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution referred to in sub-section (9), then, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law or in any instrument, he shall be entitled – (i) To claim that so much of the amount paid by him as has not been laid out or expended by such fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution (such amount being hereinafter referred to as the unutilised amount) be repaid to him, and where any claim is so made, the unutilised amount shall be repaid, as soon as may be, to him;

 (ii) To claim that any asset, being land, building, machinery, plant or furniture acquired or constructed by the fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution out of the sum paid by the assessee, be transferred to him, and where any claim is so made, such asset shall be transferred, as soon as may be, to him.

Section 41. PROFITS CHARGEABLE TO TAX.

(1) Where an allowance or deduction has been made in the assessment for any year in respect of loss, expenditure or trading liability incurred by the assessee (hereinafter referred to as the first-mentioned person) and subsequently during any previous year, - (a) The first-mentioned person has obtained, whether in cash or in any other manner whatsoever, any amount in respect of such loss or expenditure or some benefit in respect of such trading liability by way of remission or cessation thereof, the amount obtained by such person or the value of benefit accruing to him shall be deemed to be profits and gains of business or profession and accordingly chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year, whether the business or profession in respect of which the allowance or deduction has been made is in existence in that year or not; or

 (b) The successor in business has obtained, whether in cash or in any other manner whatsoever, any amount in respect of which loss or expenditure was incurred by the first-mentioned person or some benefit in respect of the trading liability referred to in clause (a) by way of remission or cessation thereof, the amount obtained by the successor in business or the value of benefit accruing to the successor in business shall be deemed to be profits and gains of the business or profession, and accordingly chargeable to income-tax as the income of that previous year.

 Explanation 1 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “loss or expenditure or some benefit in respect of any such trading liability by way of remission or cessation thereof” shall include the remission or cessation of any liability by a unilateral act by the first mentioned person under clause (a) or the successor in business under clause (b) of that sub-section by way of writing off such liability in his accounts.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, “successor in business” means, - (i) Where there has been an amalgamation of a company with another company, the amalgamated company;

 (ii) Where the first-mentioned person is succeeded by any other person in that business or profession, the other person;

 (iii) Where a firm carrying on a business or profession is succeeded by another firm, the other firm;

 (iv) Where there has been a demerger, the resulting company.

“(2) Where any building, machinery, plant or furniture, - (a) Which is owned by the assessee;

 (b) In respect of which depreciation is claimed under clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 32; and

(c) Which was or has been used for the purposes of business, is sold, discarded, demolished or distroyed and the moneys payable in respect of such building, machinery, plant or furniture, as the case may be, together with the amount of scrap value, if any, exceeds the written down value, so much of the excess as does not exceed the difference between the actual cost and the written down value shall be chargeable to income-tax as income of the business of the previous year in which the moneys payable for the building, machinery, plant or furniture became due.

 Explanation : Where the moneys payable in respect of the building, machinery, plant or furniture referred to in this sub-section become due in a previous year in which the business for the purpose of which the building, machinery, plant or furniture was being used is no longer in existence, the provision of this sub-section shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year.

(3) Where an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature on scientific research within the meaning of clause (iv) of sub-section (1), or clause (c) of sub-section (2B), of section 35 read with clause (4) of section 43, is sold, without having been used for other purposes, and the proceeds of the sale together with the total amount of the deductions made under clause (i) or, as the case may be, the amount of the deductions under clause (ia) of sub-section (2), or clause (c) of sub-section (2B), of section 35 exceed the amount of the capital expenditure, the excess or the amount of the deductions so made, whichever is the less, shall be chargeable to income-tax as income of the business or profession of the previous year in which the sale took place.

Explanation : Where the moneys payable in respect of any asset referred to in this sub-section become due in a previous year in which the business is no longer in existence, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year.

 (4) Where a deduction has been allowed in respect of a bad debt or part of debt under the provisions of clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of section 36, then, if the amount subsequently recovered on any such debt or part is greater than the difference between the debt or part of debt and the amount so allowed, the excess shall be deemed to be profits and gains of business or profession, and accordingly chargeable to income-tax as the income of the previous year in which it is recovered, whether the business or profession in respect of which the deduction has been allowed is in existence in that year or not.

Explanation : For the purposes of sub-section (3), - (1) “Moneys payable” in respect of any building, machinery, plant or furniture includes - (a) Any insurance, salvage or compensation moneys payable in respect thereof;

(b) Where the building, machinery, plant or furniture is sold, the price for which it is sold, so, however, that where the actual cost of a motor car is, in accordance with the proviso to clause (1) of section 43, taken to be twenty-five thousand rupees, the moneys payable in respect of such motor car shall be taken to be a sum which bears to the amount for which the motor car is sold or, as the case may be, the amount of any insurance, salvage or compensation moneys payable in respect thereof (including the amount of scrap value, if any) the same proportion as the amount of twenty-five thousand rupees bears to the actual cost of the motor car to the assessee as it would have been computed before applying the said proviso;

(2) “Sold” includes a transfer by way of exchange or a compulsory acquisition under any law for the time being in force but does not include a transfer, in a scheme of amalgamation, of any asset by the amalgamating company to the amalgamated company where the amalgamated company is an Indian company.

 (4A) Where a deduction has been allowed in respect of any special reserve created and maintained under clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36, any amount subsequently withdrawn from such special reserve shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of business or profession and accordingly be chargeable to income-tax as the income of the previous year in which such amount is withdrawn.

 Explanation : Where any amount is withdrawn from the special reserve in a previous year in which the business is no longer in existence, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year.

 (5) Where the business or profession referred to in this section is no longer in existence and there is income chargeable to tax under sub-section (1), sub-section (3) sub-section (4) or sub-section (4A) in respect of that business or profession, any loss, not being a loss sustained in speculation business which arose in that business or profession during the previous year in which it ceased to exist and which could not be set off against any other income of that previous year shall, so far as may be, be set off against the income chargeable to tax under the sub-sections aforesaid.

 (6) References in sub-section (3) to any other provision of this Act which has been amended or omitted by the Direct Tax Laws (Amendment) Act, 1987 shall, notwithstanding such amendment or omission, be construed, for the purposes of that sub-section, as if such amendment or omission had not been made.

Section 42. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR DEDUCTIONS IN THE CASE OF BUSINESS FOR PROSPECTING, ETC., FOR MINERAL OIL.

 (1) For the purpose of computing the profits or gains of any business consisting of the prospecting for or extraction or production of mineral oils in relation to which the Central Government has entered into an agreement with any person for the association or participation of the Central Government or any person authorised by it in such business (which agreement has been laid on the Table of each House of Parliament), there shall be made in lieu of, or in addition to, the allowances admissible under this Act, such allowances as are specified in the agreement in relation - (a) To expenditure by way of infructuous or abortive exploration expenses in respect of any area surrendered prior to the beginning of commercial production by the assessee;

(b) After the beginning of commercial production, to expenditure incurred by the assessee, whether before or after such commercial production, in respect of drilling or exploration activities or services or in respect of physical assets used in that connection, except assets on which allowance for depreciation is admissible under section 32 :

Provided that in relation to any agreement entered into after 31st day of March, 1981, this clause shall have effect subject to the modification that the words and figures “except assets on which allowance for depreciation is admissible under section 32″ had been omitted;

(c) To the depletion of mineral oil in the mining area in respect of the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which commercial production is begun and for such succeeding year or years as may be specified in the agreement; and such allowances shall be computed and made in the manner specified in the agreement, the other provisions of this Act being deemed for this purpose to have been modified to the extent necessary to give effect to the terms of the agreement.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, “mineral oil” includes petroleum and natural gas.

(2) Where the business of the assessee consisting of the prospecting for or extraction or production of petrolieum and natural gas is transferred wholly or partly or any interest in such business is transferred in accordance with the agreement referred to in sub-section (1), subject to the provisions of the said agreement and where the proceeds of the transfer (so far as they consist of capital sums) - (a) Are less than the expenditure incurred remaining unallowed, a deduction equal to such expenditure remaining unallowed, as reduced by the proceeds of transfer, shall be allowed in respect of the previous year in which such business or interest, as the case may be, is transferred;

 (b) Exceed the amount of the expenditure incurred remaining unallowed, so much of the excess as does not exceed the difference between the expenditure incurred in connection with the business or to obtain interest therein and the amount of such expenditure remaining unallowed, shall be chargeable to income-tax as profits and gains of the business in the previous year in which the business of interest therein, whether wholly or partly, had been transferred :

 Provided that in a case where the provisions of this clause do not apply, the deduction to be allowed for expenditure incurred reamining unallowed shall be arrived at by subtracting the proceeds of transfer (so far as they consist of capital sums) from the expenditure remaining unallowed.

 Explanation : Where the business or interest in such business is transferred in a previous year in which such business carried on by the assessee is not longer in existence, the provisions of this clause shall apply as if the business is in existence in that previous year;

 (c) Are not less than the amount of the expenditure incurred remaining unallowed, not deduction for such expenditure shall be allowed in respect of the previous year in which the business or interest in such business is transferred or in respect of any subsequent year or years :

 Provided that where in a scheme of amalgamation, the amalgamating company sells or otherwise transfers the business to the amalgamated company (being an Indian company), the provisions of this sub-section - (i) Shall not apply in the case of the amalgamating company; and

(ii) Shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated company as they would have applied to the amalgamating company if the latter had not transferred the business or interest in the business.

 Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, “mineral oil” includes petroleum and natural gas.

Section 43. DEFINITIONS OF CERTAIN TERMS RELEVANT TO INCOME FROM PROFITS AND GAINS OF BUSINESS OR PROFESSION.

In sections 28 to 41 and in this section, unless the context otherwise requires - (1) “Actual cost” means the actual cost of the assets to the assessee, reduced by that portion of the cost thereof, if any, as has been met directly or indirectly by any other person or authority :

Provided that where the actual cost of an asset, being a motor car which is acquired by the assessee after the 31st day of March, 1967 but before the 1st day of March, 1975, and is used otherwise than in a business of running it on hire for tourists, exceeds twenty-five thousand rupees, the excess of the actual cost over such amount shall be ignored, and the actual cost thereof shall be taken to be twenty-five thousand rupees.

 Explanation 1 : Where an asset is used in the business after it ceases to be used for scientific research related to that business and a deduction has to be made under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 32 in respect of that asset, the actual cost of the asset to the assessee shall be the actual cost to the assessee as reduced by the amount of any deduction allowed under clause (iv) of sub-section (1) of section 35 or under any corresponding provision of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922).

 Explanation 2 : Where an asset is acquired by the assessee by way of gift or inheritance, the actual cost of the asset to the assessee shall be the actual cost to the previous owner, as reduced by - (a) The amount of depreciation actually allowed under this Act and the corresponding provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922) in respect of any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing before the 1st day of April, 1988; and

(b) The amount of depreciation that would have been allowable to the assessee for any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1988, as if the asset was the only asset in the relevant block of assets.

Explanation 3 : Where, before the date of acquisition by the assessee, the assets were at any time used by any other person for the purposes of his business or profession and the Assessing Officer is satisfied that the main purpose of the transfer of such assets, directly or indirectly to the assessee, was the reduction of a liability to income-tax (by claiming depreciation with reference to an enhanced cost), the actual cost to the assessee shall be such an amount as the Assessing Officer may, with the previous approval of the Joint Commissioner, determine having regard to all the circumstances of the case.

 Explanation 4 : Where any asset which had once belonged to the assessee and had been used by him for the purposes of his business or profession and thereafter ceased to be his property by reason of transfer or otherwise, is re-acquired by him, the actual cost to the assessee shall be - (i) The actual cost to him when he first acquired the asset as reduced by – (a) The amount of depreciation actually allowed to him under this Act or under the corresponding provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), in respect of any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing before the 1st day of April, 1988; and

(b) The amount of depreciation that would have been allowable to the assessee for any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1988, as if the asset was the only asset in the relevant block of assets; or

(ii) The actual price for which the asset is re-acquired by him, whichever is less.

 Explanation 4A : Where before the date of acquisition by the assessee (hereinafter referred to as the first mentioned person), the assets were at any time used by any other person (hereinafter referred to as the second mentioned person) for the purposes of his business or profession and depreciation allowance has been claimed in respect of such assets in the case of the second mentioned person and such person acquires on lease, hire or otherwise assets from the first mentioned person, then, notwithstanding anything contained in Explanation 3, the actual cost of the transferred assets, in the case of the first mentioned person, shall be the same as the written down value of the said assets at the time of transfer thereof by the second mentioned person.

 Explanation 5 : Where a building previously the property of the assessee is brought into use for the purpose of the business or profession after the 28th day of February, 1946,the actual cost to the assessee shall be the actual cost of the building to the assessee, as reduced by an amount equal to the depreciation calculated at the rate in force on that date that would have been allowable had the building been used for the aforesaid purposes since the date of its acquisition by the assessee.

 Explanation 6 : When any capital asset is transferred by a holding company to its subsidiary company or by a subsidiary company to its holding company, then, if the conditions of clause (iv), or, as the case may be, of clause (v) of section 47 are satisfied, the actual cost of the transferred capital asset to the transferee company shall be taken to be the same as it would have been if the transferor company had continued to hold the capital asset for the purposes of its business.

 Explanation 7 : Where, in a scheme of amalgamation, any capital asset is transferred by the amalgamating company to the amalgamated company and the amalgamated company is an Indian company, the actual cost of the transferred capital asset to the amalgamated company shall be taken to be the same as it would have been if the amalgamating company had continued to hold the capital asset for the purposes of its own business.

 Explanation 7A : Where, in a demerger, any capital asset is transferred by the demerged company to the resulting company and the resulting company is an Indian company, the actual cost of the transferred capital asset to the resulting company shall be taken to be the same as it would have been if the demerged company had continued to hold the capital asset for the purpose of its own business :

 Provided that such actual cost shall not exceed the written down value of such capital asset in the hands of the demerged company.

Explanation 8 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where any amount is paid or is payable as interest in connection with the acquisition of an asset, so much of such amount as is relatable to any period after such asset is first put to use shall not be included, and shall be deemed never to have been included, in the actual cost of such asset.

 Explanation 9 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where an asset is or has been acquired on or after the 1st day of March, 1994 by an assessee, the actual cost of asset shall be reduced by the amount of duty of excise or additional duty leviable under section 3 of the Customs Tariff Act, 1975 (51 of 1975) in respect of which a claim of credit has been made and allowed under the Central Excise Rules, 1944.

 Explanation 10 : Where a portion of the cost of an asset acquired by the assessee has been met directly or indirectly by the Central Government or a State Government or any authority established under any law or by any other person, in the form of a subsidy or grant or reimbursement (by whatever name called), then, so much of the cost as is relatable to such subsidy or grant or reimbursement shall not be included in the actual cost of the asset to the assessee :

 Provided that where such subsidy or grant or reimbursement is of such nature that it cannot be directly relatable to the asset acquired, so much of the amount which bears to the total subsidy or reimbursement or grant the same proportion as such asset bears to all the assets in respect of or with reference to which the subsidy or grant or reimbursement is so received, shall not be included in the actual cost of the asset to the assessee;

Explanation 11 : Where an asset which was acquired outside India by an assessee, being a non-resident, is brought by him to India and used for the purposes of his business or profession, the actual cost of the asset to the assessee shall be the actual cost to the assessee, as reduced by an amount equal to the amount of depreciation calculated at the rate in force that would have been allowable had the asset been used in India for the said purposes since the date of its acquisition by the assessee;

(2) “Paid” means actually paid or incurred according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the profits or gains are computed under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”;

 (3) “Plant” includes ships, vehicles, books, scientific apparatus and surgical equipment used for the purposes of the business or profession [ 676a but does not include tea bushes or livestock;

 (4)(i) "Scientific research" means any activities for the extension of knowledge in the field of natural or applied science including agriculture, animal husbandry or fisheries;

 (ii) References to expenditure incurred on scientific research include all expenditure incurred for the prosecution, or the provision of facilities for the prosecution, of scientific research, but do not include any expenditure incurred in the acquisition of rights in, or arising out of, scientific research;

(iii) References to scientific research related to a business or class of business include - (a) Any scientific research which may lead to or facilitate an extension of that business or, as the case may be, all businesses of that class;

 (b) Any scientific research of a medical nature which has a special relation to the welfare of workers employed in that business or, as the case may be, all businesses of that class;

(5) "Speculative transaction" means a transaction in which a contract for the purchase or sale of any commodity, including stocks and shares, is periodically or ultimately settled otherwise than by the actual delivery or transfer of the commodity or scrips :

 Provided that for the purposes of this clause - (a) A contract in respect of raw materials or merchandise entered into by a person in the course of his manufacturing or merchanting business to guard against loss through future price fluctuations in respect of the contracts for actual delivery of goods manufactured by him or merchandise sold by him; or

(b) A contract in respect of stocks and shares entered into by a dealer or investor therein to guard against loss in his holdings of stocks and shares through price fluctuations; or

(c) A contract entered into by a member of a forward market or a stock exchange in the course of any transaction in the nature of jobbing or arbitrage to guard against loss which may arise in the ordinary course of his business as such member; shall not be deemed to be a speculative transaction;

(6) "Written down value" means - (a) In the case of assets acquired in the previous year, the actual cost to the assessee;

 (b) In the case of assets acquired before the previous year, the actual cost to the assessee less all depreciation actually allowed to him under this Act, or under the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), or any Act repealed by that Act, or under any executive orders issued when the Indian Income-tax Act, 1886 (8 of 1886), was in force :

Provided that in determining the written down value in respect of buildings, machinery or plant for the purposes of clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 32, "depreciation actually allowed" shall not include depreciation allowed under sub-clauses (a), (b) and (c) of clause (vi) of sub-section (2) of section 10 of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), where such depreciation was not deductible in determining the written down value for the purposes of the said clause (vi);

 (c) In the case of any block of assets, - (i) In respect of any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, the aggregate of the written down values of all the assets falling within that block of assets at the beginning of the previous year and adjusted, - (A) By the increase by the actual cost of any asset falling within that block acquired during the previous year; and

 (B) By the reduction of the moneys payable in respect of any asset falling within that block, which is sold or discarded or demolished or destroyed during that previous year together with the amount of the scrap value, if any, so, however, that the amount of such reduction does not exceed the written down value as so increased; and

 (C) In the case of a slump sale, decrease by the actual cost of the asset falling within that block as reduced- (a) By the amount of depreciation actually allowed to him under this Act or under the corresponding provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922) in respect of any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing before the 1st day of April, 1988; and

 (b) By the amount of depreciation that would have been allowable to the assessee for any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1988 as if the asset was the only asset in the relevant block of assets, so, however, that the amount of such decrease does not exceed the written down value;

 (ii) In respect of any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1989, the written down value of that block of assets in the immediately preceding previous year as reduced by the depreciation actually allowed in respect of that block of assets in relation to the said preceding previous year and as further adjusted by the increase or the reduction referred to in item (i).

 Explanation 1 : When in a case of succession in business or profession, an assessment is made on the successor under sub-section (2) of section 170 the written down value of any asset or any block of assets shall be the amount which would have been taken as its written down value if the assessment had been made directly on the person succeeded to.

 Explanation 2 : Where in any previous year, any block of assets is transferred, - (a) By a holding company to its subsidiary company or by a subsidiary company to its holding company and the conditions of clause (iv) or, as the case may be, of clause (v) of section 47 are satisfied; or

(b) By the amalgamating company to the amalgamated company in a scheme of amalgamation, and the amalgamated company is an Indian company, then, notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the actual cost of the block of assets in the case of the transferee-company or the amalgamated company, as the case may be, shall be the written down value of the block of assets as in the case of the transferor company or the amalgamating company for the immediately preceding previous year as reduced by the amount of depreciation actually allowed in relation to the said preceding previous year.

 Explanation 2A : Where in any previous year, any asset forming part of a block of assets is transferred by a demerged company to the resulting company, then, notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the written down value of the block of assets of the demerged company for the immediately preceding previous year shall be reduced by the book value of the assets transferred to the resulting company pursuant to the demerger.

 Explanation 2B : Where in a previous year, any asset forming part of a block of assets is transferred by a demerged company to the resulting company, then, notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the written down value of the block of assets in the case of the resulting company shall be the value of the assets as appearing in the books of account of the demerged company immediately before the demerger : Provided that if the value of the assets as appearing in the books of account of the demerged company immediately before the demerger exceeds the written down value of such assets in the hands of the demerged company, the amount representing such excess shall be reduced from the written down value of the assets.

 Explanation 3 : Any allowance in respect of any depreciation carried forward under sub-section (2) of section 32 shall be deemed to be depreciation "actually allowed".

 Explanation 4 : For the purposes of this clause, the expressions "moneys payable" and "sold" shall have the same meanings as in the Explanation below sub-section (4) of section 41.

Section 43A . SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONSEQUENTIAL TO CHANGES IN RATE OF EXCHANGE OF CURRENCY.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, where an assessee has acquired any asset from a country outside India for the purposes of his business or profession and, in consequence of a change in the rate of exchange at any time after the acquisition of such asset, there is an increase or reduction in the liability of the assessee as expressed in Indian currency for making payment towards the whole or a part of the cost of the asset or for repayment of the whole or a part of the moneys borrowed by him from any person, directly or indirectly, in any foreign currency specifically for the purpose of acquiring the asset (being in either case, the liability existing immediately before the date on which the change in the rate of exchange takes effect), the amount by which the liability aforesaid is so increased or reduced during the previous year shall be added to, or, as the case may be, deducted from, the actual cost of the asset as defined in clause (1) of section 43 or the amount of expenditure of a capital nature referred to in clause (iv) of sub-section (1) of section 35 or in section 35A or in clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36 or, in the case of a capital asset (not being a capital asset referred to in section 50), the cost of acquisition thereof for the purposes of section 48, and the amount arrived at after such addition or deduction shall be taken to be the actual cost of the asset or the amount of expenditure of a capital nature or, as the case may be, the cost of acquisition of the capital asset as aforesaid.

 Explanation 1 : In this sub-section, unless the context otherwise requires, - (a) "Rate of exchange" means the rate of exchange determined or recognised by the Central Government for the conversion of Indian currency into foreign currency or foreign currency into Indian currency;

(b) "Foreign currency" and "Indian currency" have the meanings respectively assigned to them in section 2 of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947 (7 of 1947) 685 .

 Explanation 2 : Where the whole or any part of the liability aforesaid is met, not by the assessee, but directly or indirectly, by any other person or authority, the liability so met shall not be taken into account for the purposes of this sub-section.

 Explanation 3 : Where the assessee has entered into a contract with an 686 authorised dealer as defined in section 2 of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947 (7 of 1947) 686a for providing him with a specified sum in a foreign currency on or after a stipulated future date at the rate of exchange specified in the contract to enable him to meet the whole or any part of the liability aforesaid, the amount, if any, to be added to, or deducted from, the actual cost of the asset or the amount of expenditure of a capital nature or, as the case may be, the cost of acquisition of the capital asset under this sub-section shall, in respect of so much of the sum specified in the contract as is available for discharging the liability aforesaid, be computed with reference to the rate of exchange specified therein.

(2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall not be taken into account in computing the actual cost of an asset for the purpose of the deduction on account of development rebate under section 33.

Section 43B. CERTAIN DEDUCTIONS TO BE ONLY ON ACTUAL PAYMENT.

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, a deduction otherwise allowable under this Act in respect of -

(a) Any sum payable by the assessee by way of tax, duty, cess or fee, by whatever name called, under any law for the time being in force,

 (b) Any sum payable by the assessee as an employer by way of contribution to any provident fund or superannuation fund or gratuity fund or any other fund for the welfare of employees,

 (c) Any sum referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 36,

(d) Any sum payable by the assessee as interest on any loan or borrowing from any public financial institution or a state financial corporation or a state industrial investment corporation, in accordance with the terms and conditions of the agreement [ 692c governing such loan or borrowing.

  (e) Any sum payable by the assessee as interest on any term loan from a scheduled bank in accordance with the terms and conditions of the agreement governing such loan, shall be allowed (irrespective of the previous year in which the liability to pay such sum was incurred by the assessee according to the method of accounting regularly employed by him) only in computing the income referred to in section 28 of that previous year in which sum is actually paid by him.

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall apply in relation to any sum referred to in clause (a) or clause (c) or clause (d) or clause (e) which is actually paid by the assessee on or before the due date applicable in his case for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139 in respect of the previous year in which the liability to pay such sum was incurred as aforesaid and the evidence of such payment is furnished by the assessee along with such return 694a :

Provided further that no deduction shall, in respect of any sum referred to in clause (b), be allowed unless such sum has actually been paid in cash or by issue of a cheque or draft or by any other mode on or before the due date as defined in the Explanation below clause (va) of sub-section (1) of section 36 and where such payment has been made otherwise than in cash, the sum has been realised within fifteen days from the due date.

Explanation [1] : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where a deduction in respect of any sum referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of this section is allowed in computing the income referred to in section 28 of the previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1983 or any earlier assessment year) in which the liability to pay such sum was incurred by the assessee, the assessee shall not be entitled to any deduction under this section in respect of such sum in computing the income of the previous year in which the sum is actually paid by him.

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of clause (a), as in force at all material times, “any sum payable” means a sum for which the assessee incurred liability in the previous year even though such sum might not have been payable within that year under the relevant law.

Explanation 3 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where a deduction in respect of any sum referred to in clause (c) or clause (d) of this section is allowed in computing the income referred to in section 28 of the previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, or any earlier assessment year) in which the liability to pay such sum was incurred by the assessee, the assessee shall not be entitled to any deduction under this section in respect of such sum in computing the income of the previous year in which the sum is actually paid by him.

 Explanation 3A : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where a deduction in respect of any sum referred to in clause (e) of this section is allowed in computing the income referred to in section 28 of the previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1996, or any earlier assessment year) in which the liability to pay such sum was incurred by the assessee, the assessee shall not be entitled to any deduction under this section in respect of such sum in computing the income of the previous year in which the sum is actually paid by him.

Explanation 4 : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Public financial institution” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

 (aa) “Scheduled bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ii) of the Explanation to clause (viia) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

(b) “State financial corporation” means a financial corporation established under section 3 or section 3A or an institution notified under section 46 of the State Financial Corporations Act, 1951 (63 of 1951);

(c) “State industrial investment corporation” means a Government company within the meaning of section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), engaged in the business of providing long-term finance for industrial projects and approved by the Central Government under clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36.

Section 43C. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTATION OF COST OF ACQUISITION OF CERTAIN ASSETS.

(1) Where an asset not being an asset referred to in sub-section (2) of section 45 which becomes the property of an amalgamated company under a scheme of amalgamation, is sold after the 29th day of February, 1988, by the amalgamated company as stock-in-trade of the business carried on by it, the cost of acquisition of the said asset to the amalgamated company in computing the profits and gains from the sale of such asset shall be the cost of acquisition of the said asset to the amalgamating company, as increased by the cost, if any, of any improvement made thereto, and the expenditure, if any, incurred, wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer by the amalgamating company.

 (2) Where an asset [not being an asset referred to in sub-section (2) of section 45] which becomes the property of the assessee on the total or partial partition of a Hindu undivided family or under a gift or will or an irrevocable trust, is sold after the 29th day of February, 1988, by the assessee as stock-in-trade, of the business carried on by him, the cost of acquisition of the said asset to the assessee in computing the profits and gains from the sale of such asset shall be the cost of acquisition of the said asset to the transferor or the donor, as the case may be, as increased by the cost, if any, of any improvement made thereto, and the expenditure, if any, incurred, wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer (by way of effecting the partition, acceptance of the gift, obtaining probate in respect of the will or the creation of the trust), including the payment of gift-tax, if any, incurred by the transferor or the donor, as the case may be.

Section 43D. SPECIAL PROVISION IN CASE OF INCOME OF PUBLIC FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, ETC.

 Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other provision of this Act, in the case of a public financial institution or a scheduled bank or a state financial corporation or a state industrial investment corporation, the income by way of interest in relation to such categories of bad or doubtful debts as may be prescribed having regard to the guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India in relation to such debts, shall be chargeable to tax in the previous year in which it is credited by the public financial institution or the scheduled bank or the state financial corporation or the state industrial investment corporation to its profit and loss account for that year or, as the case may be, in which it is actually received by that institution or bank or corporation, whichever is earlier.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Public financial institution” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

 (b) “Scheduled bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ii) of the Explanation to clause (viia) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

(c) “State financial corporation” means a financial corporation established under section 3 or section 3A or an institution notified under section 46 of the State Financial Corporations Act, 1951 (63 of 1951);

 (d) “State industrial investment corporation” means a Government company within the meaning of section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), engaged in the business of providing long-term finance for industrial projects and approved by the Central Government under clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36.

Section 44. INSURANCE BUSINESS.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the provisions of this Act relating to the computation of income chargeable under the head “Interest on securities” 701a , “Income from house property”, “Capital gains” or “Income from other sources”, or in section 199 or in sections 28 to 43B the profits and gains of any business of insurance, including any such business carried on by a mutual insurance company or by a co-operative society, shall be computed in accordance with the rules contained in the First Schedule.

Section 44A. SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR DEDUCTION IN THE CASE OF TRADE, PROFESSIONAL OR SIMILAR ASSOCIATION.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Act, where the amount received during a previous year by any trade, professional or similar association (other than an association or institution referred to in clause (23A) of section 10) from its members, whether by way of subscription or otherwise (not being remuneration received for rendering any specific service to such members) falls short of the expenditure incurred by such association during that previous year (not being expenditure deductible in computing the income under any other provision of this Act and not being in the nature of capital expenditure) solely for the purposes of protection or advancement of the common interests of its members, the amount so fallen short (hereinafter referred to as deficiency) shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the association assessable for the relevant assessment year under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” and if there is no income assessable under that head or the deficiency allowable exceeds such income, the whole or the balance of the deficiency, as the case may be, shall be allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the association assessable for the relevant assessment year under any other head.

 (2) In computing the income of the association for the relevant assessment year under sub-section (1), effect shall first be given to any other provision of this Act under which any allowance or loss in respect of any earlier assessment year is carried forward and set off against the income for the relevant assessment year.

(3) The amount of deficiency to be allowed as a deduction under this section shall in no case exceed one-half of the total income of the association as computed before making any allowance under this section.

(4) This section applies only to that trade, professional or similar association the income of which or any part thereof is not distributed to its members except as grants to any association or institution affiliated to it.

Section 44AA . MAINTENANCE OF ACCOUNTS BY CERTAIN PERSONS CARRYING ON PROFESSION OR BUSINESS.

(1) Every person carrying on legal, medical, engineering or architectural profession or the profession of accountancy or technical consultancy or interior decoration or any other profession as is notified 707 by the Board in the Official Gazette shall keep and maintain such books of account and other documents as may enable the Assessing Officer to compute his total income in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

 (2) Every person carrying on business or profession [not being a profession referred to in sub-section (1)] shall, - (i) If his income from business or profession exceeds one lakh twenty thousand rupees or his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business or profession exceed or exceeds ten lakh rupees in any one of the three years immediately preceding the previous year; or

(ii) Where the business or profession is newly set up in any previous year, if his income from business or profession is likely to exceed one lakh twenty thousand rupees or his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business or profession are or is likely to exceed ten lakh rupees, during such previous year; or

(iii) Where the profits and gains from the business are deemed to be the profits and gains of the assessee under section 44AD or section 44AE or section 44AF, as the case may be, and the assessee has claimed his income to be lowerthan the profits or gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his business, as the case may be, during such previous year, keep and maintain such books of account and other documents as may enable the Assessing Officer to compute his total income in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

(3) The Board may, having regard to the nature of the business or profession carried on by any class of persons, prescribe, 709 by rules the books of account and other documents (including inventories, wherever necessary) to be kept and maintained under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), the particulars to be contained therein and the form the manner in which and the place at which they shall be kept and maintained.

  (4) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3), the Board may prescribe, by rules, the period for which the books of account and other documents to be kept and maintained under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be retained.

Section 44AB. AUDIT OF ACCOUNTS OF CERTAIN PERSONS CARRYING ON BUSINESS OR PROFESSION.

 Every person, – (a) Carrying on business shall, if his total sales, turnover 711 or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business exceed or exceeds forty lakh rupees in any previous year, or

 (b) Carrying on profession shall, if his gross receipts in profession exceed ten lakh rupees in any previous year, or

(c) Carrying on the business shall, if the profits and gains from the business are deemed to be the profits and gains of such person under section 44AD or section 44AE or section 44AF, as the case may be, and he has claimed his income to be lower than the profits or gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his business, as the case may be, in any previous year, get his accounts of such previous year audited by an accountant before the specified date and furnished by that date the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed 714 :

Provided that this section shall not apply to the person, who derives income of the nature referred to in section 44B or section 44BB or section 44BBA or section 44BBB, on and from the 1st day of April, 1985 or, as the case may be, the date on which the relevant section came into force, whichever is later :

Provided further that in a case where such person is required by or under any other law to get his accounts audited, it shall be sufficient compliance with the provisions of this section if such person gets the accounts of such business or profession audited under such law before the specified date and furnished by that date the report of the audit as required under such other law and a further report in the form prescribed under this section. 716

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Accountant” shall have the same meaning as in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288;

(ii) “Specified date”, in relation to the accounts of the previous year relevant to an assessment year means, - (a) Where the assessee is a company, the 30th day of November of the assessment year;

 (b) In any other case, the 31st day of October of the assessment year.

Section 44AC. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS FROM THE BUSINESS OF TRADING IN CERTAIN GOODS.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1992, W.E.F. 1-4-1993

Section 44AD . SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS OF BUSINESS OF CIVIL CONSTRUCTION, ETC.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43C, in the case of an assessee engaged in the business of civil construction or supply of labour for civil construction, a sum equal to eight per cent of the gross receipts paid or payable to the assessee in the previous year on account of such business or, as the case may be, a sum higher than the aforesaid sum as declared by the assessee in his return of income, shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” :

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply in case the aforesaid gross receipts paid or payable exceed an amount of forty lakh rupees.

(2) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed :

 Provided that where the assessee is a firm, the salary and interest paid to its partners shall be deducted from the income computed under sub-section (1) subject to the conditions and limits specified in clause (b) of section 40.

(3) The written down value of any asset used for the purpose of the business referred to in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

 (4) The provisions of sections 44AA and 44AB shall not apply in so far as they relate to the business referred to in sub-section (1) and in computing the monetary limits under those sections, the gross receipts or, as the case may be, the income from the said business shall be excluded.

 (5) Nothing contained in the foregoing provisions of this section shall apply, where the assessee claims and produces evidence to prove that the profits and gains from the aforesaid business are lower than the profits and gains specified in sub-section (1), and thereupon the Assessing Officer shall proceed to make an assessment of the total income or loss of the assessee and determine the sum payable by the assessee on the basis of assessment made under sub-section (3) of section 143.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an assessee may lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in sub-section (1), if he keeps and maintains such books of accounts and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, the expression “civil construction” includes – (a) The construction or repair of any building, bridge, dam or other structure or of any canal or road;

(b) The execution of any works contract.

Section 44AE. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS OF BUSINESS OF PLYING, HIRING OR LEASING GOODS CARRIAGES.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43C, in the case of an assessee, who owns not more than ten goods carriages and who is engaged in the business of plying, hiring or leasing such goods carriages, the income of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” shall be deemed to be the aggregate of the profits and gains, from all the goods carriages owned by him in the previous year, computed in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2).

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the profits and gains from each goods carriage, - (i) Being a heavy goods vehicle, shall be an amount equal to two thousand rupees for every month or a part of month during which the heavy goods vehicle is owned by the assessee in the previous year or, as the case may be, an amount higher than the aforesaid amount as declared by him in his return of income.

(ii) Other than a heavy goods vehicle, shall be an amount equal to one thousand eight hundred rupees for every month or part of a month during which the goods carriage is owned by the assessee in the previous year or, as the case may be, an amount higher than the aforesaid amount as declared by him in his return of income.

 (3) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed :

Provided that where the assessee is a firm, the salary and interest paid to its partners shall be deducted from the income computed under sub-section (1) subject to the conditions and limits specified in clause (b) of section 40.

(4) The written down value of any asset used for the purpose of the business referred to in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

(5) The provisions of sections 44AA and 44AB shall not apply in so far as they relate to the business referred to in sub-section (1) and in computing the monetary limits under those sections, the gross receipts or, as the case may be, the income from the said business shall be excluded.

(6) Nothing contained in the foregoing provisions of this section shall apply, where the assessee claims and produces evidence to prove that the profits and gains from the aforesaid business are lower than the profits and gains specified in sub-sections (1) and (2), and thereupon the Assessing Officer shall proceed to make an assessment of the total income or loss of the assessee and determine the sum payable by the assessee on the basis of assessment made under sub-section (3) of section 143.

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an assessee may claim lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in sub-sections (1) and (2), if he keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, - (a) The expressions “goods carriage” and “heavy goods vehicle” shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in section 2 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988);

(b) An assessee, who is in possession of a goods carriage, whether taken on hire-purchase or on instalments and for which the whole or part of the amount payable is still due, shall be deemed to be the owner of such goods carriage.

Section 44AF. SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS OF RETAIL BUSINESS.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43C, in the case of an assessee engaged in retail trade in any goods or merchandise, a sum equal to five per cent of the total turnover in the previous year on account of such business or, as the case may be, a sum higher than the aforesaid sum as declared by the assessee in his return of income shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” :

 Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply in respect of an assessee whose total turnover exceeds an amount of forty lakh rupees in the previous year.

(2) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed :

Provided that where the assessee is a firm, the salary and interest paid to its partners shall be deducted from the income computed under sub-section (1) subject to the conditions and limits specified in clause (b) of section 40.

 (3) The written down value of any asset used for the purpose of the business referred to in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

 (4) The provisions of sections 44AA and 44AB shall not apply in so far as they relate to the business referred to in sub-section (1) and in computing the monetary limits under those sections, the total turnover, or, as the case may be, the income from the said business shall be excluded.

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an assessee may claim lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in sub-section (1), if he keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

Section 44B. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS OF SHIPPING BUSINESS IN THE CASE OF NON-RESIDENTS.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43A in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident, engaged in the business of operation of ships, a sum equal to seven and a half per cent of the aggregate of the amounts specified in sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

(2) The amounts referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :- (i) The amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the assessee or to any person, on his behalf on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods shipped at any port in India; and

 (ii) The amount received or deemed to be received in India by or on behalf of the assessee on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods shipped at any port outside India.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, the amount referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) shall include the amount paid or payable or received or deemed to be received, as the case may be, by way of demurrage charges or handling charges or any other amount of similar nature.

Section 44BB. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS IN CONNECTION WITH THE BUSINESS OF EXPLORATION, ETC., OF MINERAL OILS.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 41 and sections 43 and 43A, in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident engaged in the business of providing services, or facilities in connection with, or supplying plant and machinery on hire used, or to be used, in the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, mineral oils, a sum equal to ten per cent of the aggregate of the amounts specified in sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” :

 Provided that this sub-section shall not apply in a case where the provisions of section 42 or section 44D or section 115A or section 293A apply for the purposes of computing profits or gains or any other income referred to in those sections.

(2) The amounts referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :- (a) The amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of the provision of services and facilities in connection with, or supply of plant and machinery on hire used, or to be used, in the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, mineral oils in India; and

 (b) The amount received or deemed to be received in India by or on behalf of the assessee on account of the provision of services and facilities in connection with, or supply of plant and machinery on hire used, or to be used, in the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, mineral oils outside India.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Plant” includes ships, aircrafts, vehicles, drilling units, scientific apparatus and equipment, used for the purposes of the said business;

(ii) “Mineral oil” includes petroleum and natural gas.

Section 44BBA . SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS OF THE BUSINESS OF OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT IN THE CASE OF NON-RESIDENTS.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43A, in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident, engaged in the business of operation of aircraft, a sum equal to five per cent. of the aggregate of the amounts specified in sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

 (2) The amounts referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :- (a) The amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods from any place in India; and

(b) The amount received or deemed to be received in India by or on behalf of the assessee on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods from any place outside India.

Section 44BBB . SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTING PROFITS AND GAINS OF FOREIGN COMPANIES ENGAGED IN THE BUSINESS OF CIVIL CONSTRUCTION, ETC., IN CERTAIN TURNKEY POWER PROJECTS.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 44AA, in the case of an assessee, being a foreign company, engaged in the business of civil construction or the business of erection of plant or machinery or testing or commissioning thereof, in connection with a turnkey power project approved by the Central Government 727 in this behalf and financed under any international aid programme, a sum equal to ten per cent of the amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the said assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of such civil construction, erection, testing or commissioning shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

Section 44C. DEDUCTION OF HEAD OFFICE EXPENDITURE IN THE CASE OF NON-RESIDENTS.

 Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43A, in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident, no allowance shall be made, in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”, in respect of so much of the expenditure in the nature of head office expenditure as is in excess of the amount computed as hereunder, namely :- (a) An amount equal to five per cent of the adjusted total income, or

(c) The amount of so much of the expenditure in the nature of head office expenditure incurred by the assessee as is attributable to the business or profession of the assessee in India, whichever is the least :

Provided that in a case where the adjusted total income of the assessee is a loss, the amount under clause (a) shall be computed at the rate of five per cent of the average adjusted total income of the assessee.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Adjusted total income” means the total income computed in accordance with the provisions of this Act, without giving effect to the allowance referred to in this section or in sub-section (2) of section 32 or the deduction referred to in section 32A or section 33 or section 33A or the first proviso to clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36 or any loss carried forward under sub-section (1) of section 72 or sub-section (2) of section 73 or sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) of section 74 or sub-section (3) of section 74A or the deductions under Chapter VI-A.

(ii) “Average adjusted total income” means, - (a) In a case where the total income of the assessee is assessable for each of the three assessment years immediately preceding the relevant assessment year, one-third of the aggregate amount of the adjusted total income in respect of the previous years relevant to the aforesaid three assessment years;

(b) In a case where the total income of the assessee is assessable only for two of the aforesaid three assessment years, one-half of the aggregate amount of the adjusted total income in respect of the previous years relevant to the aforesaid two assessment years;

 (c) In a case where the total income of the assessee is assessable only for one of the aforesaid three assessment years, the amount of the adjusted total income in respect of the previous year relevant to that assessment year;

(iv) “Head office expenditure” means executive and general administration expenditure incurred by the assessee outside India, including expenditure incurred in respect of - (a) Rent, rates, taxes, repairs or insurance of any premises outside India used for the purposes of the business or profession;

 (b) Salary, wages, annuity, pension, fees, bonus, commission, gratuity, perquisites or profits in lieu of or in addition to salary, whether paid or allowed to any employee or other person employed in or managing the affairs of, any office outside India;

(c) Travelling by any employee or other person employed in, or managing the affairs of, any office outside India; and

 (d) Such other matters connected with executive and general administration as may be prescribed.

Section 44D. SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR COMPUTING INCOME BY WAY OF ROYALTIES, ETC., IN THE CASE OF FOREIGN COMPANIES.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 44C, in the case of an assessee, being a foreign company, - (a) The deductions admissible under the said sections in computing the income by way of royalty or fees for technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by the foreign company with Government or with the Indian concern before the 1st day of April, 1976, shall not exceed in the aggregate twenty per cent of the gross amount of such royalty or fees as reduced by so much of the gross amount of such royalty as consists of lump sum consideration for the transfer outside India of, or the imparting of information outside India in respect of, any data, documentation, drawing or specification relating to any patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property;

(b) No deduction in respect of any expenditure or allowance shall be allowed under any of the said sections in computing the income by way of royalty or fees for technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by a foreign company with Government or with the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 1976;

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Fees for technical services” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

 (b) “Foreign company” shall have the same meaning as in section 80B;

(c) “Royalty” shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

(d) Royalty received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by a foreign company with Government or the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 1976, shall be deemed to have been received in pursuance of an agreement made before the 1st day of April, 1976, if such agreement is deemed, for the purposes of the proviso to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9, to have been made before the 1st day of April, 1976.

Section 45. CAPITAL GAINS.

(1) Any profits or gains arising from the transfer 737 of a capital asset effected in the previous year shall, save as otherwise provided in sections 54, 54B, 54D, 54E, 54EA, 54EB, 54F , 54G and 54H be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Capital gains”, and shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place.

 (1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where any person receives at any time during any previous year any money or other assets under an insurance from an insurer on account of damage to, or destruction of, any capital asset, as a result of - (i) Flood, typhoon, hurricane, cyclone, earthquake or other convulsion of nature; or

 (ii) Riot or civil disturbance; or

(iii) Accidental fire or explosion; or

(iv) Action by an enemy or action taken in combating an enemy (whether with or without a declaration of war), then, any profits or gains arising from receipt of such money or other assets shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Capital gains” and shall be deemed to be the income of such person of the previous year in which such money or other asset was received and for the purposes of section 48, value of any money or the fair market value of other assets on the date of such receipt shall be deemed to be the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of such capital asset.

 Explanation. – For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “insurer” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (9) of section 2 of the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938).

 (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the profits or gains arising from the transfer by way of conversion by the owner of a capital asset into, or its treatment by him as, stock-in-trade of a business carried on by him shall be chargeable to income-tax as his income of the previous year in which such stock-in-trade is sold or otherwise transferred by him and, for the purposes of section 48, the fair market value of the asset on the date of such conversion or treatment shall be deemed to be the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset.

(2A) Where any person has had at any time during previous year any beneficial interest in any securities, then, any profits or gains arising from transfer made by the depository or participant of such beneficial interest in respect of securities shall be chargeable to income-tax as the income of the beneficial owner of the previous year in which such transfer took place and shall not be regarded as income of the depository who is deemed to be registered owner of securities by virtue of sub-section (1) of section 10 of the Depositories Act, 1996, and for the purposes of - (i) Section 48; and

(ii) Proviso to clause (42A) of section 2, the cost of acquision and the period of holding of any securities shall be determined on the basis of the first-in-first-out method.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this sub-section, the expressions “beneficial owner”, “depository” any “security” shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in clauses (a), (e) and (l) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Depositories Act, 1996.

(3) The profits or gains arising from the transfer of a capital asset by a person to a firm or other association of persons or body of individuals (not being a company or a co-operative society) in which he is or becomes a partner or member, by way of capital contribution or otherwise, shall be chargeable to tax as his income of the previous year in which such transfer takes place and, for the purposes of section 48, the amount recorded in the books of account of the firm, association or body as the value of the capital asset shall be deemed to be the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset.

(4) The profits or gains arising from the transfer of a capital asset by way of distribution of capital assets on the dissolution of a firm or other association of persons or body of individuals (not being a company or a co-operative society) or otherwise, shall be chargeable to tax as the income of the firm, association or body, of the previous year in which the said transfer takes place and, for the purposes of section 48, the fair market value of the asset on the date of such transfer shall be deemed to be the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer.

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where the capital gain arises from the transfer of a capital asset, being a transfer by way of compulsory acquisition under any law, or a transfer the consideration for which was determined or approved by the Central Government or the Reserve Bank of India, and the compensation or the consideration for such transfer is enhanced or further enhanced by any court, Tribunal or other authority, the capital gain shall be dealt with in the following manner, namely :- (a) The capital gain computed with reference to the compensation awarded in the first instance or, as the case may be, the consideration determined or approved in the first instance by the Central Government or the Reserve Bank of India shall be chargeable as income under the head “Capital gains” of the previous year in which such compensation or part thereof, or such consideration or part thereof, was first received; and

(b) The amount by which the compensation or consideration is enhanced or further enhanced by the court, tribunal or other authority shall be deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” of the previous year in which such amount is received by the assessee.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, - (i) In relation to the amount referred to in clause (b), the cost of acquisition and the cost of improvement shall be taken to be nil;

 (ii) The provisions of this sub-section shall apply also in a case where the transfer took place prior to the 1st day of April, 1988;

 (iii) Where by reason of the death of the person who made the transfer, or for any other reason, the enhanced compensation or consideration is received by any other person, the amount referred to in clause (b) shall be deemed to be the income chargeable to tax under the head “Capital gains”, of such other person.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the difference between the repurchase price of the units referred to in sub-section (2) of section 80CCB and the capital value of such units shall be deemed to be the capital gains arising to the assessee in the previous year in which such repurchase takes place or the plan referred to in that section is terminated and shall be taxed accordingly.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, “capital value of such units” means any amount invested by the assessee in the units referred to in sub-section (2) of section 80CCB.

Section 46. CAPITAL GAINS ON DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS BY COMPANIES IN LIQUIDATION.

 (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 45, where the assets of a company are distributed to its shareholders on its liquidation, such distribution shall not be regarded as a transfer by the company for the purposes of section 45.

(2) Where a shareholder on the liquidation of a company receives any money or other assets from the company, he shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Capital gains”, in respect of the money so received or the market value of the other assets on the date of distribution, as reduced by the amount assessed as dividend within the meaning of sub-clause (c) of clause (22) of section 2 and the sum so arrived at, shall be deemed to be the full value of the consideration for the purposes of section 48.

Section 46A . CAPITAL GAINS ON PURCHASES BY COMPANY OF ITS OWN OR OTHER SPECIFIED SECURITIES. -

 Where a shareholder or a holder of other specified securities receives any consideration from any company for purchase of its own shares or other specified securities held by such shareholder or holder of other specified securities, then, subject to the provisions of section 48, the difference between the cost of acquisition and the value of consideration received by the shareholder or the holder of other specified securities, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the capital gains arising to such shareholder or the holder of other specified securities, as the case may be, in the year in which such shares or other specified securities were purchased by the company.

 Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, “specified securities” shall have the meaning assigned to it in Explanation to section 77A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).

Section 47. TRANSACTIONS NOT REGARDED AS TRANSFER.

Nothing contained in section 45 shall apply to the following transfers : (i) Any distribution of capital assets on the total or partial partition of a Hindu undivided family;

(iii) Any transfer of a capital asset under a gift or will or an irrevocable trust;

(iv) Any transfer of a capital asset by a company to its subsidiary company, if - (a) The parent company or its nominees hold the whole of the share capital of the subsidiary company; and

 (b) The subsidiary company is an Indian company;

(v) Any transfer of a capital asset by a subsidiary company to the holding company, if - (a) The whole of the share capital of the subsidiary company is held by the holding company, and

(b) The holding company is an Indian company :

Provided that nothing contained in clause (iv) or clause (v) shall apply to the transfer of a capital asset made after the 29th day of February, 1988, as stock-in-trade;

 (vi) Any transfer, in a scheme of amalgamation, of a capital asset by the amalgamating company to the amalgamated company if the amalgamated company is an Indian company;

(via) Any transfer, in a scheme of amalgamation, of a capital asset being a share or shares held in an Indian company, by the amalgamating foreign company to the amalgamated foreign company, if - (a) At least twenty-five per cent of the shareholders of the amalgamating foreign company continue to remain shareholders of the amalgamated foreign company, and

 (b) Such transfer does not attract tax on capital gains in the country, in which the amalgamating company is incorporated;

(vib) Any transfer, in a demerger, of a capital asset by the demerged company to the resulting company, if the resulting company is an Indian company;

 (vic) Any transfer in a demerger, of a capital asset, being a share or shares held in an Indian company, by the demerged foreign company to the resulting foreign company, if – (a) At least seventy-five per cent of the shareholders of the demerged foreign company continue to remain shareholders of the resulting foreign company; and

(b) Such transfer does not attract tax on capital gains in the country, in which the demerged foreign company is incorporated :

Provided that the provisions of sections 391 to 394 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) shall not apply in case of demergers referred to in this clause;

(vid) Any transfer or issue of shares by the resulting company, in a scheme of demerger to the shareholders of the demerged company if the transfer or issue is made in consideration of demerger of the undertaking;

(vii) Any transfer by a shareholder, in a scheme of amalgamation, of a capital asset being a share or shares held by him in the amalgamating company, if - (a) The transfer is made in consideration of the allotment to him of any share or shares in the amalgamated company, and

 (b) The amalgamated company is an Indian company;

(viia) Any transfer of capital asset, being bonds or shares referred to in sub-section (1) of section 115AC, made outside India by a non-resident to another non-resident;

 (viii) Any transfer of agricultural land in India effected before the 1st day of March, 1970;

 (ix) Any transfer of a capital asset, being any work of art, archaeological, scientific or art collection, book, manuscript, drawing, painting, photograph or print, to the Government or a University or the National Museum, National Art Gallery, National Archives or any such other public museum or institution as may be notified 753 by the Central Government in the Official Gazette to be of national importance or to be of renown throughout any State or States.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act and includes an institution declared under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 (3 of 1956), to be a University for the purposes of that Act.

(x) Any transfer by way of conversion of bonds or debentures, debenture-stock or deposit certificates in any form, of a company into shares or debentures of that company.

(xi) Any transfer made on or before the 753ca 31st day of December, 1998, 753ca by a person (not being a company) of a capital asset being membership of a recognised stock exchange to a company in exchange for shares allotted by that company to the transferor.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “membership of a recognised stock exchange” means the membership of a stock exchange in India which is recognised under the provisions of the Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956);

 (xii) Any transfer of a capital asset, being land of a sick industrial company, made under a scheme prepared and sanctioned under section 18 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986) where such sick industrial company is being managed by its workers’ co-operative :

Provided that such transfer is made during the period commencing from the previous year in which the said company has become a sick industrial company under sub-section (1) of section 17 of that Act and ending with the previous year during which the entire net worth of such company becomes equal to or exceeds the accumulated losses.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “net worth” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ga) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986).

 (xiii) Where a firm is succeeded by a company in the business carried on by it as a result of which the firm sells or otherwise transfers any capital asset or intangible asset to the company

: Provided that – (a) All the assets and liabilities of the firm relating to the business immediately before the succession become the assets and liabilities of the company;

 (b) All the partners of the firm immediately before the succession become the shareholders of the company in the same proportion in which their capital accounts stood in the books of the firm on the date of succession;

(c) The partners of the firm do not receive any consideration or benefit, directly or indirectly, in any form or manner, other than by way of allotment of shares in the company; and

 (d) The aggregate of the shareholding in the company of the partners of the firm is not less than fifty per cent of the total voting power in the company and their share holding continues to be as such for a period of five years from the date of the succession;

 (xiv) Where a sole proprietary concern is succeeded by a company in the business carried on by it as a result of which the sole proprietary concern sells or otherwise transfers any capital asset or intangible asset to the company :

Provided that – (a) All the assets and liabilities of the sole proprietary concern relating to the business immediately before the succession become the assets and liabilities of the company;

 (b) The shareholding of the sole proprietor in the company is not less than fifty per cent of the total voting power in the company and his shareholding continues to so remain as such for a period of five years from the date of the succession; and

(c) The sole proprietor does not receive any consideration or benefit, directly or indirectly, in any form or manner, other than by way of allotment of shares in the company;

(xv) Any transfer in a scheme for lending of any securities under an agreement or arrangement, which the assessee has entered into with the borrower of such securities and which is subject to the guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India, established under section 3 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992), in this regard.

Section 47A . WITHDRAWAL OF EXEMPTION IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Where at any time before the expiry of a period of eight years from the date of the transfer of a capital asset referred to in clause (iv) or, as the case may be, clause (v) of section 47, - (i) Such capital asset is converted by the transferee company into, or is treated by it as, stock-in-trade of its business; or

 (ii) The parent company or its nominees or, as the case may be, the holding company ceases or cease to hold the whole of the share capital of the subsidiary company, the amount of profits or gains arising from the transfer of such capital asset not charged under section 45 by virtue of the provisions contained in clause (iv) or, as the case may be, clause (v) of section 47 shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the said clauses, be deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” of the previous year in which such transfer took place.

(2) Where at any time, before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of the transfer of a capital asset referred to in clause (xi) of section 47, any of the shares allotted to the transferor in exchange for a membership in a recognised stock exchange are transferred, the amount of profits and gains not charged under section 45 by virtue of the provisions contained in clause (xi) of section 47 shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the said clause, be deemed to be the income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” of the previous year in which such shares are transferred.

(3) Where any of the conditions laid down in the proviso to clause (xiii) or the proviso to clause (xiv) of section 47 are not complied with, the amount of profits or gins arising from the transfer of such capital assets or intangible asset not charged under section 45 by virtue of conditions laid down in the proviso to clause (xiii) or the proviso to clause (xiv) of section 47 shall be deemed to be the profits and gains chargeable to tax of the successor company for the previous year in which the requirements of the proviso to clause (xiii) or the proviso to clause (xiv), as the case may be, are not complied with.

Section 48. MODE OF COMPUTATION.

The income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” shall be computed, by deducting from the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset the following amounts, namely :-

(i) Expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer;

(ii) The cost of acquisition of the asset and the cost of any improvement thereto :

Provided that in the case of an assessee, who is a non-resident, capital gains arising from the transfer of a capital asset being shares in, or debentures of, an Indian company shall be computed by converting the cost of acquisition, expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer and the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset into the same foreign currency as was initially utilised in the purchase of the shares or debentures, and the capital gains so computed in such foreign currency shall be reconverted into Indian currency, so however, that the aforesaid manner of computation of capital gains shall be applicable in respect of capital gains accruing or arising from every reinvestment thereafter in, and sale of, shares in, or debentures of, an Indian company :

Provided further that where long-term capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset, other than capital gain arising to a non-resident from the transfer of shares in, or debentures of, an Indian company referred to in the first proviso, the provisions of clause (ii) shall have effect as if for the words “cost of acquisition” and “cost of any improvement”, the words “indexed cost of acquisition” and “indexed cost of any improvement” had respectively been substituted.

 Provided also that nothing contained in the second proviso shall apply to the long-term capital gain arising from the transfer of a long-term capital asset being bond or debenture other than capital indexed bonds issued by the Government.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Foreign currency” and “Indian currency” shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in section 2 of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973);

 (ii) The conversion of Indian currency into foreign currency and the reconversion of foreign currency into Indian currency shall be at the rate of exchange prescribed in this behalf;

(iii) “Indexed cost of acquisition” means an amount which bears to the cost of acquisition the same proportion as Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the Cost Inflation Index for the first year in which the asset was held by the assessee or for the year beginning on the 1st day of April, 1981, whichever is later;

(iv) “Indexed cost of any improvement” means an amount which bears to the cost of improvement the same proportion as Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the improvement to the asset took place;

(v) “Cost Inflation Index” for any year means such Index as the Central Government may, having regard to seventy-five per cent of average rise in the Consumer Price Index for urban non-manual employees for that year, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 759 in this behalf.

Section 49. COST WITH REFERENCE TO CERTAIN MODES OF ACQUISITION.

 (1) Where the capital asset became the property of the assessee - (i) On any distribution of assets on the total or partial partition of a Hindu undivided family;

 (ii) Under a gift or will;

(a) By succession, inheritance or devolution, or

 (b) On any distribution of assets on the dissolution of a firm, body of individuals, or other association of persons, where such dissolution had taken place at any time before the 1st day of April, 1987,

 (c) On any distribution of assets on the liquidation of a company, or

(d) Under a transfer to a revocable or an irrevocable trust, or

(e) Under any such transfer as is referred to in clause (iv) or clause (v) or clause (vi) or clause

 (via) 762a of section 47

(iv) Such assessee being a Hindu undivided family, by the mode referred to in sub-section (2) of section 64 at any time after the 31st day of December, 1969, the cost of the acquisition of the assets shall be deemed to be the cost for which the previous owner of the property acquired it, as increased by the cost of any improvement of the assets incurred or borne by the previous owner or the assessee, as the case may be.

 Explanation : In this sub-section the expression “previous owner of the property” in relation to any capital asset owned by an assessee means the last previous owner of the capital asset who acquired it by a mode of acquisition other than that referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) or clause (iii) or clause (iv) of this sub-section.

(2) Where the capital asset being a share or shares in an amalgamated company which is an Indian company became the property of the assessee in consideration of a transfer referred to in clause (vii) of section 47, the cost of acquisition of the asset shall be deemed to be the cost of acquisition to him of the share or shares in the amalgamating company.

 (2A) Where the capital asset, being a share or debenture in a company, became the property of the assessee in consideration of a transfer referred to in clause (x) of section 47, the cost of acquisition of the asset to the assessee shall be deemed to be that part of the cost of debenture, debenture-stock or deposit certificates in relation to which such asset is acquired by the assessee.

(2B) Where the capital gain arises from the transfer of the specified security referred to in sub-clause (iiia) of clause (2) of section 17, the cost of acquisition of such specified security shall be the fair market value on the date of exercise of option.

(2C) The cost of acquisition of the shares in the resulting company shall be the amount which bears to the cost of acquisition of shares held by the assessee in the demerged company the same proportion as the net book value of the assets transferred in a demerger bears to the net worth of the demerged company immediately before such demerger.

(2D) The cost of acquisition of the original shares held by the shareholder in the demerged company shall be deemed to have been reduced by the amount as so arrived at under sub-section (2C).

Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, “net worth” shall mean the aggregate of the paid up share capital and general reserves as appearing in the books of account of the demerged company immediately before the demerger.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where the capital gain arising from the transfer of a capital asset referred to in clause (iv) or, as the case may be, clause (v) of section 47 is deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” by virtue of the provisions contained in section 47A, the cost of acquisition of such asset to the transferee company shall be the cost for which such asset was acquired by it.

Section 50. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTATION OF CAPITAL GAINS IN CASE OF DEPRECIABLE ASSETS.

Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (42A) of section 2, where the capital asset is an asset forming part of a block of assets in respect of which depreciation has been allowed under this Act or under the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 (11 of 1922), the provisions of sections 48 and 49 shall be subject to the following modifications :- (1) Where the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the asset together with the full value of such consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of any other capital asset falling within the block of assets during the previous year, exceeds the aggregate of the following amounts, namely :-

 (i) Expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer or transfers;

 (ii) The written down value or the block of assets at the beginning of the previous year; and

(iii) The actual cost of any asset falling within the block of assets acquired during the previous year, such excess shall be deemed to be the capital gains arising from the transfer of short-term capital assets;

(2) Where any block of assets ceases to exist as such, for the reason that all the assets in that block are transferred during the previous year, the cost of acquisition of the block of assets shall be the written down value of the block of assets at the beginning of the previous year, as increased by the actual cost of any asset falling within that block of assets acquired by the assessee during the previous year and the income received or accruing as a result of such transfer or transfers shall be deemed to be the capital gains arising from the transfer of short-term capital assets.

Section 50A. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COST OF ACQUISITION IN CASE OF DEPRECIABLE ASSET.

 Where the capital asset is an asset in respect of which a deduction on account of depreciation under clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 32 has been obtained by the assessee in any previous year, the provisions of sections 48 and 49 shall apply subject to the modification that the written down value, as defined in clause (6) of section 43, of the asset, as adjusted, shall be taken as the cost of acquisition of the asset.

Section 50B. SPECIAL PROVISION FOR COMPUTATION OF CAPITAL GAINS IN CASE OF SLUMP SALE.

 (1) Any profits or gains arising from the slump sale effected in the previous year shall be chargeable to income-tax as capital gains arising from the transfer of long-term capital assets and shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place :

 Provided that any profits or gains arising from the transfer under the slump sale of any capital asset being one or more undertakings owned and held by an assessee for not more than thirty-six months immediately preceding the date of its transfer shall be deemed to be the capital gains arising from the transfer of short-term capital assets.

 (2) In relation to capital assets being an undertaking or division transferred by way of such sale, the “net worth” of the undertaking or the division, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the cost of acquisition and the cost of improvement for the purposes of sections 48 and 49 and no regard shall be given to the provisions contained in the second proviso to section 48.

(3) Every assessee, in the case of slump sale, shall furnish in the prescribed form along with the return of income, a report of an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 indicating the computation of the net worth of the undertaking or division, as the case may be, and certifying that the net worth of the undertaking or division, as the case may be, has been correctly arrived at in accordance with the provisions of this section.

 Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, “net worth” means the net worth as defined in clause (ga) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986).

Section 51. ADVANCE MONEY RECEIVED.

Where any capital asset was on any previous occasion the subject of negotiations for its transfer, any advance or other money received and retained by the assessee in respect of such negotiations shall be deducted from the cost for which the asset was acquired or the written down value or the fair market value, as the case may be, in computing the cost of acquisition.

Section 52 / CONSIDERATION FOR TRANSFER IN CASES OF UNDERSTATEMENT.

 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1987, W.E.F. 1-4-1988

Section 53. EXEMPTION OF CAPITAL GAINS FROM A RESIDENTIAL HOUSE.

 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1992, W.E.F. 1-4-1993

Section 54. PROFIT ON SALE OF PROPERTY USED FOR RESIDENCE.

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where in the case of an assessee being an individual or a Hindu undivided family, the capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset, being buildings or lands appurtenant thereto, and being a residential house, the income of which is chargeable under the head “Income from house property” (hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset), and the assessee has within a period of one year before or two years after the date on which the transfer took place purchased, or has within a period of three years after that date constructed, a residential house, then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as income of the previous year in which the transfer took place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, – (i) If the amount of the capital gain is greater than the cost of the residential house so purchased or constructed (hereafter in this section referred to as the new asset), the difference between the amount of the capital gain and the cost of the new asset shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase or construction, as the case may be, the cost shall be nil; or

 (ii) If the amount of the capital gain is equal to or less than the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase or construction, as the case may be, the cost shall be reduced by the amount of the capital gain.

(2) The amount of the capital gain which is not appropriated by the assessee towards the purchase of the new asset made within one year before the date on which the transfer of the original asset took place, or which is not utilised by him for the purchase or construction of the new asset before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139 786 , shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return [such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139 in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme 787 which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit; and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset together with the amount so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset :

Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for the purchase or construction of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then, - (i) The amount not so utilised shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year in which the period of three years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and

 (ii) The assessee shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.

Section 54A , RELIEF OF TAX ON CAPITAL GAINS IN CERTAIN CASES.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE (NO. 2) ACT, 1971, W.E.F. 1-4-1972

Section 54B. CAPITAL GAIN ON TRANSFER OF LAND USED FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES NOT TO BE CHARGED IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where the capital gain arises from the transfer of a capital asset being land which, in the two years immediately preceding the date on which the transfer took place, was being used by the assessee or a parent of his for agricultural purposes hereinafter referred to as the original asset, and the assessee has, within a period of two years after that date, purchased any other land for being used for agricultural purposes, then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as income of the previous year in which the transfer took place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, - (i) If the amount of the capital gain is greater than the cost of the land so purchased (hereinafter referred to as the new asset), the difference between the amount of the capital gain and the cost of the new asset shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase, the cost shall be nil; or

(ii) If the amount of the capital gain is equal to or less than the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase, the cost shall be reduced by the amount of the capital gain.

 (2) The amount of the capital gain which is not utilised by the assessee for the purchase of the new asset before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139, shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139 in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme 794 which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit; and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for the purchase of the new asset together with the amount so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset :

 Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for the purchase of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then, - (i) The amount not so utilised shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year in which the period of two years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and

 (ii) The assessee shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.

Section 54C. CAPITAL GAIN ON TRANSFER OF JEWLLERY HELD FOR PERSONAL USE NOT TO BE CHARGED IN CERTAIN CASES.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1976, W.E.F. 1-4-1976

Section 54D . CAPITAL GAIN ON COMPULSORY ACQUISITION OF LANDS AND BUILDINGS NOT TO BE CHARGED IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where the capital gain arises from the transfer by way of compulsory acquisition under any law of a capital asset, being land or building or any right in land or building, forming part of an industrial undertaking belonging to the assessee which, in the two years immediately preceding the date on which the transfer took place, was being used by the assessee for the purposes of the business of the said undertaking hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset) and the assessee has within a period of three years after that date purchased any other land or building or any right in any other land or building or constructed any other building for the purposes of shifting or re-establishing the said undertaking or setting up another industrial undertaking, then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, - (i) If the amount of the capital gain is greater than the cost of the land, building or right so purchased or the building so constructed (such land, building or right being hereafter in this section referred to as the new asset), the difference between the amount of the capital gain and the cost of the new asset shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase or construction, as the case may be, the cost shall be nil; or

(ii) If the amount of the capital gain is equal to or less than the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45; and for the purpose of computing in respect of new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase or construction, as the case may be, the cost shall be reduced by the amount of the capital gain.

(2) The amount of the capital gain which is not utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139, shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return [such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139] in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme 801 which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit; and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset together with the amount so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset :

Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for the purchase or construction of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then, - (i) The amount not so utilised shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year in which the period of three years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and

 (ii) The assessee shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.

Section 54E . CAPITAL GAIN ON TRANSFER OF CAPITAL ASSETS NOT TO BE CHARGED IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Where the capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset before the 1st day of April, 1992, (the capital asset so transferred being hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset) and the assessee has, within a period of six months after the date of such transfer, invested or deposited the whole or any part of the net consideration in any specified asset (such specified asset being hereafter in this section referred to as the new asset), the capital gain shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, -

(a) If the cost of the new asset is not less than the net consideration in respect of the original asset, the whole of such capital gain shall not be charged under section 45;

 (b) If the cost of the new asset is less than the net consideration in respect of the original asset, so much of the capital gain as bears to the whole of the capital gain the same proportion as the cost of acquisition of the new asset bears to the net consideration shall not be charged under section 45;

Provided that in a case where the original asset is transferred after the 28th day of February, 1983, the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply unless the assessee has invested or deposited the whole or, as the case may be, any part of the net consideration in the new asset by initially subscribing to such new asset :

Provided further that in a case where the transfer of the original asset is by way of compulsory acquisition under any law and the full amount of compensation awarded for such acquisition is not received by the assessee on the date of such transfer, the period of six months referred to in this sub-section shall, in relation to so much of such compensation as is not received on the date of transfer, be reckoned from the date immediately following the date on which such compensation is received by the assessee or the 31st day of March, 1992, whichever is earlier.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of this sub-section, “specified asset” means, - (a) In a case where the original asset is transferred before the 1st day of March, 1979, any of the following assets, namely :- (i) Securities of the Central Government or a State Government;

 (ii) Savings certificates as defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Government Savings Certificates Act, 1959 (46 of 1959);

 (iii) Units in the Unit Trust of India established under the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963);

(iv) Debentures specified by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 80L;

(v) Shares in any Indian company which are issued to the public or are listed in a recognised stock exchange in India in accordance with the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956), and any rules made thereunder, where the investment in such shares is made before the 1st day of March, 1978;

(va) Equity shares forming part of any eligible issue of capital where the investment in such shares is made after the 28th day of February, 1978;

(vi) Deposits for a period of not less than three years with the State Bank of India established under the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955), or any subsidiary bank as defined in the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959 (38 of 1959), or any nationalised bank, that is to say, any corresponding new bank constituted under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970 (5 of 1970), or any co-operative society engaged in carrying on the business of banking (including a co-operative land mortgage bank or a co-operative land development bank);

(b) In a case where the original asset is transferred after the 28th day of February, 1979 but before the 1st day of March, 1983 such National Rural Development Bonds as the Central Government may notify 813 in this behalf in the Official Gazette;

(c) In a case where the original asset is transferred after the 28th day of February, 1983, but before the 1st day of April, 1986, any of the following assets, namely :- (i) Securities of the Central Government which that Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

(ii) Special series of units of the Unit Trust of India established under the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963), which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 815 in this behalf;

 (iii) Such National Rural Development Bonds as have been notified under clause (b) of Explanation 1 or as may be notified 816 in this behalf under this clause by the Central Government;

 (iv) Such debentures issued by the Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited [a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956)], as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 817 in this behalf;

 (d) In a case where the original asset is transferred after the 31st day of March, 1986 any of the assets specified in clause (c) and such bonds issued by any public sector company, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 819 in this behalf;

 (e) In a case where the original asset is transferred after the 31st day of March, 1989, any of the assets specified in clauses (c) and (d) and such debentures or bonds issued by the National Housing Bank established under section 3 of the National Housing Bank Act, 1987 (53 of 1987), as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.

 Explanation 2 : “Eligible issue of capital” shall have the meaning assigned to it in sub-section (3) of section 80CC.

 Explanation 3 : An assessee shall not be deemed to have invested the whole or any part of the net consideration in any equity shares referred to in sub-clause (va) of clause (a) of Explanation 1, unless the assessee has subscribed to or purchased the shares in the manner specified in sub-section (4) of section 80CC.

Explanation 4 : “Cost” in relation to any new asset, being a deposit referred to in sub-clause (vi) of clause (a) of Explanation 1, means the amount of such deposit.

 Explanation 5 : “Net consideration” in relation to the transfer of a capital asset, means the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset as reduced by any expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer.

(1A) Where the assessee deposits after the 27th day of April, 1978 the whole or any part of the net consideration in respect of the original asset in any new asset, being a deposit referred to in sub-clause (vi) of clause (a) of Explanation 1 below sub-section (1), the cost of such new asset shall not be taken into account for the purposes of that sub-section unless the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) The assessee furnishes, along with the deposit, a declaration in writing, to the bank or the co-operative society referred to in the said sub-clause (vi) With which such deposit is made, to the effect that the assessee will not take any loan or advance on the security of such deposit during a period of three years from the date on which the deposit is made;

(b) The assessee furnishes, along with the return of income for the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the transfer of the original asset was effected or within such further time as may be allowed by the Assessing Officer, a copy of the declaration referred to in clause (a) duly attested by an officer not below the rank of sub-agent, agent or manager of such bank or an officer of corresponding rank of such co-operative society.

(1B) Where on the fulfilment of the conditions specified in sub-section (1A) the cost of the new asset referred to in that sub-section is taken into account for the purposes of sub-section (1), the assessee shall, within a period of ninety days from the expiry of the period of three years reckoned from the date of such deposit, furnish to the Assessing Officer a certificate from the officer referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1A) to the effect that the assessee has not taken any loan or advance on the security of such deposit during the said period of three years.

(1C) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where the capital gain arises from the transfer of the original asset, made after the 31st day of March, 1992, in respect of which the assessee had received any amount by way of advance on or before the 29th day of February, 1992 and had invested or deposited the whole or any part of such amount in the new asset on or before the later date, then, the provisions of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1) shall apply in the case of such investment or deposit as they apply in the case of investment or deposit under that sub-section.

 2) Where the new asset is transferred, or converted (otherwise than by transfer) into money, within a period of three years from the date of its acquisition, the amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of such new asset as provided in clause (a) or, as the case may be, clause (b), of sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” relating to long-term capital assets of the previous year in which the new asset is transferred or converted (otherwise than by transfer) into money.

 Explanation 1 : Where the assessee deposits after the 27th day of April, 1978 the whole or any part of the net consideration in respect of the original asset in any new asset, being a deposit referred to in sub-clause (vi) of clause (a) of Explanation 1 below sub-section (1), and such assessee takes any loan or advance on the security of such deposit, he shall be deemed to have converted (otherwise than by transfer) such deposit into money on the date on which such loan or advance is taken.

 Explanation 2 : In a case where the original asset is transferred after the 28th day of February, 1983 and the assessee invests the whole or any part of the net consideration in respect of the original asset in any new asset and such assessee takes any loan or advance on the security of such new asset, he shall be deemed to have converted (otherwise than by transfer) such new asset on the date on which such loan or advance is taken.

(3) Where the cost of the equity shares referred to in sub-clause (va) of clause (a) of Explanation 1 below sub-section (1) is taken into account for the purposes of clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) a deduction with reference to such cost shall not be allowed under section 80CC.

Section 54EA. CAPITAL GAIN ON TRANSFER OF LONG-TERM CAPITAL ASSETS NOT TO BE CHARGED IN THE CASE OF INVESTMENT IN SPECIFIED SECURITIES.

(1) Where the capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset (the capital asset so transferred being hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset) and the assessee has, at any time within a period of six months after the date of such transfer, invested the whole or any part of the net consideration in any of the bonds, debentures, shares of a public company or units of any mutual fund referred to in clause (23D) of section 10, specified by the Board in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette (such assets hereafter in this section referred to as the specified securities, the capital gain shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, - (a) If the cost of the specified securities is not less than the net consideration in respect of the original asset, the whole of such capital gain shall not be charged under section 45;

(b) If the cost of the specified securities is less than the net consideration in respect of the original asset, so much of the capital gain as bears to the whole of the capital gain the same proportion as the cost of acquisition of the specified securities bears to the net consideration shall not be charged under section 45.

 (2) Where the specified securities are transferred or converted (otherwise than by transfer) into money at any time within a period of three years from the date of their acquisition, the amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of such specified securities as provided in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” relating to long-term capital assets of the previous year in which the specified securities are transferred or converted (otherwise than by transfer) into money.

Explanation : In a case where the original asset is transferred and the assessee invests the whole or any part of the net consideration in respect of the original asset in any specified securities and such assessee takes any loan or advance on the security of such specified securities, he shall be deemed to have converted (otherwise than by transfer) such specified securities into money on the date on which such loan or advance is taken.

(3) Where the cost of the specified securities has been taken into account for the purposes of clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1), a rebate with reference to such cost shall not be allowed under section 88.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Cost”, in relation to any specified securities, means the amount invested in such specified securities out of the net consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the original asset;

 (b) “Net consideration”, in relation to the transfer of a capital asset, means the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset as reduced by the expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer.

 Section 54EB . CAPITAL GAIN ON TRANSFER OF LONG-TERM CAPITAL ASSETS NOT TO BE CHARGED IN CERTAIN CASES.

 (1) Where the capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset (the capital asset so transferred being hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset), and the assessee has, at any time within a period of six months after the date of such transfer invested the whole or any part of capital gains, in any of the assets specified by the Board in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette (such assets hereafter in this section referred to as the long-term specified assets), the capital gain shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, – (a) If the cost of the long-term specified asset is less than the capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset, the whole of such capital gain shall not be charged under section 45;

 (b) If the cost of the long-term specified asset is less than the capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset, so much of the capital gain as bears to the whole of the capital gain the same proportion as the cost of acquisition of the long-term specified asset bears to the whole of the capital gain, shall not be charged under section 45.

 Explanation : “cost”, in relation to any long-term specified asset, means the amount invested in such specified asset out of capital gains received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the original asset.

(2) Where the long-term specified asset is transferred or converted (otherwise than by transfer) into money at any time within a period of seven years from the date of its acquisition, the amount of capital gains arising from the transfer of the original asset not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of such long-term specified asset as provided in clause (a), or as the case may be, clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” relating to long-term capital assets of the previous year in which the long-term specified asset is transferred or converted (otherwise than by transfer) into money.

 Explanation : In a case where the original asset is transferred and the assessee invests the whole or any part of the capital gain received or accrued as a result of transfer of the original asset in any long-term specified asset and such assessee takes any loan or advance on the security of such specified asset, he shall be deemed to have converted (otherwise than by transfer) such specified asset into money on the date on which such loan or advance is taken.

(3) Where the cost of the long-term specified asset has been taken into account for the purposes of clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1), a deduction from the amount of income-tax with reference to such cost shall not be allowed under section 88.

Section 54F. CAPITAL GAIN ON TRANSFER OF CERTAIN CAPITAL ASSETS NOT TO BE CHARGED IN CASE OF INVESTMENT IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSE.

 (1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (4), where in the case of an assessee being an individual or a Hindu undivided family, the capital gain arises from the transfer of any long-term capital asset, not being a residential house (hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset), and the assessee has, within a period of one year before or two years after the date on which the transfer took place purchased, or has within a period of three years after that date constructed 842a , a residential house (hereafter in this section referred to as the new asset), the capital gain shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, – (a) If the cost of the new asset is not less than the net consideration in respect of the original asset, the whole of such capital gain shall not be charged under section 45;

 (b) If the cost of the new asset is less than the net consideration in respect of the original asset, so much of the capital gain as bears to the whole of the capital gain the same proportion as the cost of the new asset bears to the net consideration, shall not be charged under section 45 :

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply where the assessee owns on the date of the transfer of the original asset, or purchases, within the period of one year after such date, or constructs, within the period of three years after such date, any residential house, the income from which is chargeable under the head “Income from house property”, other than the new asset.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - ”Net consideration”, in relation to the transfer of a capital asset, means the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset as reduced by any expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer.

(2) Where the assessee purchases, within the period of two years after the date of the transfer of the original asset, or constructs, within the period of three years after such date, any residential house, the income from which is chargeable under the head “Income from house property”, other than the new asset, the amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of such new asset as provided in clause (a), or, as the case may be, clause (b), of sub-section (1), shall be deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” relating to long-term capital assets of the previous year in which such residential house is purchased or constructed.

 (3) Where the new asset is transferred within a period of three years from the date of its purchase or, as the case may be, its construction, the amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of such new asset as provided in clause (a) or, as the case may be, clause (b), of sub-section (1), shall be deemed to be income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” relating to long-term capital assets of the previous year in which such new asset is transferred.

  (4) The amount of the net consideration which is not appropriated by the assessee towards the purchase of the new asset made within one year before the date on which the transfer of the original asset took place, or which is not utilised by him for the purchase or construction of the new asset before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139, shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return [such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139] in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit; and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset together with the amount so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset :

Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for the purchase or construction of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then, - (i) The amount by which – (a) The amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the original asset not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of the new asset as provided in clause (a) or, as the case may be, clause (b) of sub-section (1), exceeds,

 (b) The amount that would not have been so charged had the amount actually utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1) been the cost of the new asset, shall be charged under section 45 as income of the previous year in which the period of three years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and (ii) the assessee shall be entitled to withdraw the unutilised amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.

Section 54G. EXEMPTION OF CAPITAL GAINS ON TRANSFER OF ASSETS IN CASES OF SHIFTING OF INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKING FROM URBAN AREA.

 (1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where the capital gain arises from the transfer of a capital asset, being machinery or plant or building or land or any rights in building or land used for the purposes of the business of an industrial undertaking situate in an urban area, effected in the course of, or in consequence of, the shifting of such industrial undertaking (hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset) to any area (other than an urban area) and the assessee has within a period of one year before or three years after the date on which the transfer took place, - (a) Purchased new machinery or plant for the purposes of business of the industrial undertaking in the area to which the said undertaking is shifted;

(b) Acquired building or land or constructed building for the purposes of his business in the said area;

(c) Shifted the original asset and transferred the establishment of such undertaking to such area; and

 (d) Incurred expenses on such other purpose as may be specified in a scheme framed by the Central Government for the purposes of this section, then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as income of the previous year in which the transfer took place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say, - (i) If the amount of the capital gain is greater than the cost and expenses incurred in relation to all or any of the purposes mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) (such cost and expenses being hereafter in this section referred to as the new asset), the difference between the amount of the capital gain and the cost of the new asset shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its being purchased, acquired, constructed or transferred, as the case may be, the cost shall be nil; or

(ii) If the amount of the capital gain is equal to, or less than, the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its being purchased, acquired, constructed or transferred, as the case may be, the cost shall be reduced by the amount of the capital gain.

Explanation : In this sub-section, “urban area” means any such area within the limits of a municipal corporation or municipality as the Central Government may, having regard to the population, concentration of industries, need for proper planning of the area and other relevant factors, by general or special order, declare to be an urban area for the purposes of this sub-section.

(2) The amount of capital gain which is not appropriated by the assessee towards the cost and expenses incurred in relation to all or any of the purposes mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of sub-section (1) within one year before the date on which the transfer of the original asset took place, or which is not utilised by him for all or any of the purposes aforesaid before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139, shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return [such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139] in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme 848 which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit, and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for all or any of the purposes aforesaid together with the amount, so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset :

 Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for all or any of the purposes mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of sub-section (1) within the period specified in that sub-section, then, - (i) The amount not so utilised shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year in which the period of three years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and

(ii) The assessee shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.

Section 54H . EXTENSION OF TIME FOR ACQUIRING NEW ASSET OR DEPOSITING OR INVESTING AMOUNT OF CAPITAL GAIN.

 Notwithstanding anything contained in sections 54, 54B, 54D, 54EA, 54EB and 54F, where the transfer of the original asset is by way of compulsory acquisition under any law and the amount of compensation awarded for such acquisition is not received by the assessee on the date of such transfer, the period for acquiring the new asset by the assessee referred to in those sections or, as the case may be, the period available to the assessee under those sections for depositing or investing the amount of capital gain in relation to such compensation as is not received on the date of the transfer, shall be reckoned from the date of receipt of such compensation :

 Provided that where the compensation in respect of transfer of the original asset by way of compulsory acquisition under any law is received before the 1st day of April, 1991, the aforesaid period or periods, if expired, shall extend upto the 31st day of December, 1991.

Section 55. MEANING OF “ADJUSTED”, “COST OF IMPROVEMENT” AND “COST OF ACQUISITION”.

(1) For the purposes of sections 48 and 49 , - (a) “Cost of any improvement”, – (1) In relation to a capital asset being goodwill of a business or a right to manufacture, produce or process any article or thing shall be taken to be nil; and

 (2) In relation to any other capital asset, -

(i) Where the capital asset became the property of the previous owner 852 or the assessee before the 1st day of April, 1981, means all expenditure of a capital nature incurred in making any additions or alterations to the capital asset on or after the said date by the previous owner or the assessee, and

(ii) In any other case, means all expenditure of a capital nature incurred in making any additions or alterations to the capital asset by the assessee after it became his property, and, where the capital asset became the property of the assessee by any of the modes specified in sub-section (1) of section 49, by the previous owner, but does not include any expenditure which is deductible in computing the income chargeable under the head “Interest on securities”, 853c “Income from house property”, “Profits and gains of business or profession”, or “Income from other sources”, and the expression “improvement” shall be construed accordingly.

(2) For the purposes of sections 48 and 49, “cost of acquisition”, – (a) In relation to a capital asset, being goodwill of a business, or a right to manufacture, produce or process any article or thing, tenancy rights, stage carriage permits or loom hours, -

 (i) In the case of acquisition of such asset by the assessee by purchase from a previous owner, means the amount of the purchase price; and

(ii) In any other case [not being a case falling under sub-clauses (i) to (iv) of sub-section (1) of section 49], shall be taken to be nil;

 (aa) In a case where, by virtue of holding a capital asset, being a share or any other security, within the meaning of clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956) (hereafter in this clause referred to as the financial asset), the assessee – (A) Becomes entitled to subscribe to any additional financial asset; or

 (B) Is allotted any additional financial asset without any payment, then, subject to the provisions of sub-clauses (i) and (ii) of clause (b), -

 (i) In relation to the original financial asset, on the basis of which the assessee becomes entitled to any additional financial asset, means the amount actually paid for acquiring the original financial asset;

 (ii) In relation to any right to renounce the said entitlement to subscribe to the financial asset, when such right is renounced by the assessee in favour of any person, shall be taken to be nil in the case of such assessee;

(iii) In relation to the financial asset, to which the assessee has subscribed on the basis of the said entitlement, means the amount actually paid by him for acquiring such asset; and

 (iiia) In relation to the financial asset allotted to the assessee without any payment and on the basis of holding of any other financial asset, shall be taken to be nil in the case of such assessee;

(iv) In relation to any financial asset purchased by any person in whose favour the right to subscribe to such asset has been renounced, means the aggregate of the amount of the purchase price paid by him to the person renouncing such right and the amount paid by him to the company or institution, as the case may be, for acquiring such financial asset;

(b) In relation to any other capital asset, -

(i) Where the capital asset became the property of the assessee before the 1st day of April, 1981, means the cost of acquisition of the asset to the assessee or the fair market value of the asset as on the 1st day of April, 1981, at the option of the assessee;

 (ii) Where the capital asset became the property of the assessee by any of the modes specified in sub-section (1) of section 49, and the capital asset became the property of the previous owner before the 1st day of April, 1981, means the cost of the capital asset to the previous owner or the fair market value of the asset on the 1st day of April, 1981, at the option of the assessee;

(iii) Where the capital asset became the property of the assessee on the distribution of the capital assets of a company on its liquidation and the assessee has been assessed to income-tax under the head “Capital gains” in respect of that asset under section 46, means the fair market value of the asset on the date of distribution;

(v) Where the capital asset, being a share or a stock of a company, became the property of the assessee on -

 (a) The consolidation and division of all or any of the share capital of the company into shares of larger amount than its existing shares,

 (b) The conversion of any shares of the company into stock,

(c) The re-conversion of any stock of the company into shares,

(d) The sub-division of any of the shares of the company into shares of smaller amount, or

(e) The conversion of one kind of shares of the company into another kind, means the cost of acquisition of the asset calculated with reference to the cost of acquisition of the shares or stock from which such asset is derived.

 (3) Where the cost for which the previous owner acquired the property cannot be ascertained, the cost of acquisition to the previous owner means the fair market value on the date on which the capital asset became the property of the previous owner

Section 55A- Refrence to valuation officer

With a view to ascertaining the fair market value of a capital asset for the purposes of this Chapter, the Assessing Officer may refer the valuation of the capital asset to a Valuation Officer -

 (a) In a case where the value of the asset as claimed by the assessee is in accordance with the estimate made by a registered valuer, if the Assessing Officer is of opinion that the value so claimed is less than its fair market value;

(b) In any other case, if the Assessing Officer is of opinion -

 (i) That the fair market value of the asset exceeds the value of the asset as claimed by the assessee by more than such percentage of the value of the asset as so claimed or by more than such amount as may be prescribed 859 in this behalf; or

(ii) That having regard to the nature of the asset and other relevant circumstances, it is necessary so to do, and where any such reference is made, the provisions of sub-sections (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) of section 16A, clauses (ha) and (i) of sub-section (1) and sub-sections (3A) and (4) of section 23, sub-section (5) of section 24, section 34AA, section 35 and section 37 of the Wealth-tax Act, 1957 (27 of 1957), shall with the necessary modifications, apply in relation to such reference as they apply in relation to a reference made by the Assessing Officer under sub-section (1) of section 16A of that Act.

Explanation : In this section, “Valuation Officer” has the same meaning as in clause (r) of section 2 of the Wealth-tax Act, 1957 (27 of 1957).

Section 56- INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES.

(1) Income of every kind 860 which is not to be excluded from the total income under this Act shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Income from other sources”, if it is not chargeable to income-tax under any of the heads specified in section 14, items A to E.

 2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the following incomes shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head “Income from other sources”, namely :- (i) Dividends;

 (ia) Income referred to in sub-clause (viii) of clause (24) of section 2;

(ib) Income referred to in sub-clause (ix) of clause (24) of section 2;

(ic) Income referred to in sub-clause (x) of clause (24) of section 2, if such income is not chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”;

 (id) Income by way of interest on securities, if the income is not chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”;

(ii) Income from machinery, plant or furniture belonging to the assessee and let on hire, if the income is not chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”;

 (iii) Where an assessee lets on hire machinery, plant or furniture belonging to him and also buildings, and the letting of the buildings is inseparable from the letting of the said machinery, plant or furniture, the income from such letting, if it is not chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”;

(iv) Income referred to in sub-clause (xi) of clause (24) of section 2, if such income is not chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” or under the head “Salaries”.

Section 57- DEDUCTIONS.

The income chargeable under the head “Income from other sources” shall be computed after making the following deductions, namely :- (i) In the case of dividends or interest on securities, any reasonable sum paid by way of commission or remuneration to a banker or any other person for the purpose of realising such dividend or interest on behalf of the assessee;

 (ia) In the case of income of the nature referred to in sub-clause (x) of clause (24) of section 2 which is chargeable to income-tax under the head “Income from other sources”, deductions, so far as may be, in accordance with the provisions of clause (va) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

 (ii) In the case of income of the nature referred to in clauses (ii) and (iii) of sub-section (2) of section 56, deductions, so far as may be, in accordance with the provisions of sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) and clause (c) of section 30, section 31, and sub-sections (1), and (2) of section 32 and subject to the provisions of section 38;

(iia) In the case of income in the nature of family pension, a deduction of a sum equal to thirty-three and one-third per cent of such income or fifteen thousand rupees, whichever is less.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “family pension” means a regular monthly amount payable by the employer to a person belonging to the family of an employee in the event of his death;

(iii) Any other expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure)

laid out or expended wholly and exclusively for the purpose of making or earning such income :

Section 58- AMOUNTS NOT DEDUCTIBLE.

(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in section 57, the following amounts shall not be deductible in computing the income chargeable under the head “Income from other sources”, namely :- (a) In the case of any assessee, -

 (i) Any personal expenses of the assessee;

(ia) Any expenditure of the nature referred to in sub-section (12) of section 40A;

(ii) Any interest chargeable under this Act which is payable outside India (not being interest on a loan issued for public subscription before the 1st day of April, 1938), on which tax has not been paid or deducted under Chapter XVII-B

(iii) Any payment which is chargeable under the head “Salaries” if it is payable outside India, unless tax has been paid thereon or deducted therefrom under Chapter XVII-B;

(1A) The provisions of sub-clause (iia) of clause (a) of section 40 shall, so far as may be, apply in computing the income chargeable under the head “Income from other sources” as they apply in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

(2) The provisions of section 40A shall, so far as may be, apply in computing the income chargeable under the head “Income from other sources” as they apply in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

 (3) In the case of an assessee, being a foreign company, the provisions of

section 44D shall, so far as may be, apply in computing the income chargeable under the head “Income from other sources” as they apply in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

(4) In the case of an assessee having income chargeable under the head “Income from other sources,” no deduction in respect of any expenditure or allowance in connection with such income shall be allowed under any provision of this Act in computing the income by way of any winnings from lotteries, crossword puzzles, races including horse races, card games and other games of any sort or from gambling or betting of any form or nature, whatsoever :

 Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply in computing the income of an assessee, being the owner of horses maintained by him for running in horse races, from the activity of owning and maintaining such horses.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, “horse race” means a horse race upon which wagering or betting may be lawfully made.

Section 59- PROFITS CHARGEABLE TO TAX.

(1) The provisions of sub-section (1) of section 41 shall apply, so far as may be, in computing the income of an assessee under section 56, as they apply in computing the income of an assessee under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

Section 60- TRANSFER OF INCOME WHERE THERE IS NO TRANSFER OF ASSETS.

 All income arising to any person by virtue of a transfer whether revocable or not and whether effected before or after the commencement of this Act shall, where there is no transfer of the assets from which the income arises, be chargeable to income-tax as the income of the transferor and shall be included in his total income.

Section 61- REVOCABLE TRANSFER OF ASSETS.

All income arising to any person by virtue of a revocable transfer of assets shall be chargeable to income-tax as the income of the transferor and shall be included in his total income.

Section 62- TRANSFER IRREVOCABLE FOR A SPECIFIED PERIOD.

(1) The provisions of section 61 shall not apply to any income arising to any person by virtue of a transfer -

 (i) By way of trust which is not revocable during the lifetime of the beneficiary, and, in the case of any other transfer, which is not revocable during the life time of the transferee; or

 (ii) Made before the day of April, 1961, which is not revocable for a period exceeding six years :

Provided that the transferor derives no direct or indirect benefit from such income in either case.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), all income arising to any person by virtue of any such transfer shall be chargeable to income-tax as the income of the transferor as and when the power to revoke the transfer arises, and shall then be included in his total income.

Section 63- “TRANSFER” AND “REVOCABLE TRANSFER” DEFINED.

For the purposes of sections 60, 61 and 62 and of this section, -

(a) A transfer shall be deemed to be revocable if -

(i) It contains any provision for the re-transfer directly or indirectly of the whole or any part of the income or assets to the transferor, or

(ii) It, in any way, gives the transferor a right to re-assume power directly or indirectly over the whole or any part of the income or assets;

(b) “Transfer” includes any settlement, trust, covenant, agreement or arrangement

Section 64- INCOME OF INDIVIDUAL TO INCLUDE INCOME OF SPOUSE, MINOR CHILD, ETC.

 (1) In computing the total income of any individual, there shall be included all such income as arises directly or indirectly -

(ii) To the spouse of such individual by way of salary, commission, fees or any other form of remuneration whether in cash or in kind from a concern in which such individual has a substantial interest :

 Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply in relation to any income arising to the spouse where the spouse possesses technical or professional qualification and the income is solely attributable to the application of his or her technical or professional knowledge and experience;

(iv) Subject to the provisions of clause (i) of section 27, to the spouse of such individual from assets transferred directly or indirectly to the spouse by such individual otherwise than for adequate consideration or in connection with an agreement to live apart;

(vi) To the son’s wife, of such individual from assets transferred directly or indirectly on or after the 1st day of June, 1973, to the son’s wife by such individual otherwise than for adequate consideration;

 (vii) To any person or association of persons from assets transferred directly or indirectly otherwise than for adequate consideration to the person or association of persons by such individual to the extent to which the income from such assets is for the immediate or deferred benefit of his or her spouse.

 (viii) To any person or association of persons from assets transferred directly or indirectly on or after the 1st day of June, 1973, otherwise than for adequate consideration, to the person or association of persons by such individual, to the extent to which the income from such assets is for the immediate or deferred benefit of his son’s wife.

 Explanation 1 : For the purposes of clause (ii), the individual in computing whose total income the income referred to in that clause is to be included, shall be the husband or wife whose total income (excluding the income referred to in that clause) is greater; and where any such income is once included in the total income of either spouse, any such income arising in any succeeding year shall not be included in the total income of the other spouse unless the Assessing Officer is satisfied, after giving that spouse an opportunity of being heard, that it is necessary so to do.

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of clause (ii), an individual shall be deemed to have a substantial interest in a concern -

 (i) In a case where the concern is a company, if its shares (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a further right to participate in profits) carrying not less than twenty per cent of the voting power are, at any time during the previous year, owned beneficially by such person or partly by such person and partly by one or more of his relatives;

(ii) In any other case, if such person is entitled, or such person and one or more of his relatives are entitled in the aggregate, at any time during the previous year, to not less than twenty per cent of the profits of such concern.

Explanation 3 : For the purposes of clauses (iv) and (vi), where the assets transferred directly or indirectly by an individual to his spouse or son’s wife (hereafter in this Explanation referred to as “the transferee”) are invested by the transferee, -

 (i) In any business, such investment being not in the nature of contribution of capital as a partner in a firm or, as the case may be, for being admitted to the benefits of partnership in a firm, that part of the income arising out of the business to the transferee in any previous year, which bears the same proportion to the income of the transferee from the business as the value of the assets aforesaid as on the first day of the previous year bears to the total investment in the business by the transferee as on the said day;

(ii) In the nature of contribution of capital as a partner in a firm, that part of the interest receivable by the transferee from the firm in any previous year, which bears the same proportion to the interest receivable by the transferee from the firm as the value of investment aforesaid as on the first day of the previous year bears to the total investment by way of capital contribution as a partner in the firm as on the said day, shall be included in the total income of the individual in that previous year.

 (1A) In computing the total income of any individual, there shall be included all such income as arises or accrues to his minor child not being a minor child suffering from any disability of the nature specified in section 80U:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply in respect of such income as arises or accrues to the minor child on account of any

 (a) Manual work done by him; or

(b) Activity involving application of his skill, talent or specialised knowledge and experience.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, the income of the minor child shall be included, -

(a) Where the marriage of his parents subsists, in the income of that parent whose total income (excluding the income includible under this sub-section) is greater; or

 (b) Where the marriage of his parents does not subsist, in the income of that parent who maintains the minor child in the previous year, and where any such income is once included in the total income of either parent, any such income arising in any succeeding year shall not be included in the total income of the other parent, unless the Assessing Officer is satisfied, after giving that parent an opportunity of being heard, that it is necessary so to do.

(2) Where, in the case of an individual being a member of a Hindu undivided family, any property having been the separate property of the individual has, at any time after the 31st day of December, 1969 been converted by the individual into property belonging to the family through the act of impressing such separate property with the character of property belonging to the family or throwing it into the common stock of the family or been transferred by the individual, directly or indirectly, to the family otherwise than for adequate consideration (the property so converted or transferred being hereinafter referred to as the converted property) then, notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act or in any other law for the time being in force, for the purpose of computation of the total income of the individual under this Act for any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1971, -

(a) The individual shall be deemed to have transferred the converted property, through the family, to the members of the family for being held by them jointly;

 (b) The income derived from the converted property or any part thereof shall be deemed to arise to the individual and not to the family;

(c) Where the converted property has been the subject-matter of a partition (whether partial or total) amongst the members of the family, the income derived from such converted property as is received by the spouse on partition shall be deemed to arise to the spouse or minor child from assets transferred indirectly by the individual to the spouse and the provisions of sub-section (1) shall, so far as may be, apply accordingly:

 Provided that the income referred to in clause (b) or clause (c) shall, on being included in the total income of the individual, be excluded from the total income of the family or, as the case may be, the spouse of the individual.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of sub-section (2), - ”Property” includes any interest in property, movable or immovable, the proceeds of sale thereof and any money or investment for the time being representing the proceeds of sale thereof and where the property is converted into any other property by any method, such other property.

 Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this section, “income” includes loss.

Section 65- LIABILITY OF PERSON IN RESPECT OF INCOME INCLUDED IN THE INCOME OF ANOTHER PERSON.

Where, by reason of the provisions contained in this Chapter or in clause (i) of section 27, the income from any asset or from membership in a firm of a person other than the assessee is included in the total income of the assessee, the person in whose name such asset stands or who is a member of the firm shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, be liable, on the service of a notice of demand by the Assessing Officer in this behalf, to pay that portion of the tax levied on the assessee which is attributable to the income so included, and the provisions of Chapter XVII-D shall, so far as may be, apply accordingly :

Provided that where any such asset is held jointly by more than one person, they shall be jointly and severally liable to pay the tax which is attributable to the income from the assets so included.

Section 66- TOTAL INCOME.

In computing the total income of an assessee, there shall be included all income on which no income-tax is payable under Chapter VII.

Section 67- METHOD OF COMPUTING A PARTNER’S SHARE IN THE INCOME OF THE FIRM.

 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1992, W.E.F. 1-4-1993

Section 67A- METHOD OF COMPUTING A MEMBER’S SHARE IN INCOME OF ASSOCIATION OF PERSONS OR BODY OF INDIVIDUALS.

 (1) In computing the total income of an assessee who is a member of an association of persons or a body of individuals wherein the shares of the members are determinate and known [other than a company or a co-operative society or society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), or under any law corresponding to that Act in force in any part of India], whether the net result of the computation of the total income of such association or body is a profit or a loss, his share (whether a net profit or net loss) shall be computed as follows, namely :-

(a) Any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration by whatever name called, paid to any member in respect of the previous year shall be deducted from the total income of the association or body and the balance ascertained and apportioned among the members in the proportions in which they are entitled to share in the income of the association or body;

(b) Where the amount apportioned to a member under clause (a) is a profit, any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration aforesaid paid to the member by the association or body in respect of the previous year shall be added to that amount, and the result shall be treated as the member’s share in the income of the association or body;

(c) Where the amount apportioned to a member under clause (a) is a loss, any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration aforesaid paid to the member by the association or body in respect of the previous year shall be adjusted against that amount, and the result shall be treated as the member’s share in the income of the association or body.

(2) The share of a member in the income or loss of the association or body, as computed under sub-section (1), shall, for the purposes of assessment, be apportioned under the various heads of income in the same manner in which the income or loss of the association or body has been determined under each head of income.

 (3) Any interest paid by a member on capital borrowed by him for the purposes of investment in the association or body shall, in computing his share chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” in respect of his share in the income of the association or body, be deducted from his share.

Explanation : In this section “paid” has the same meaning as is assigned to it in clause (2) of section 43.

 Section 68- CASH CREDITS.

Where any sum is found credited in the books of an assessee maintained for any previous year, and assessee offers no explanation about the nature and source thereof or the explanation offered by him is not, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, satisfactory, the sum so credited may be charged to income-tax as the income of the assessee of that previous year.

Section 69- UNEXPLAINED INVESTMENTS.

Where in the financial year immediately preceding the assessment year the assessee has made investments which are not recorded in the books of account, if any, maintained by him for any source of income, and the assessee offers no explanation about the nature and source of the investments or the explanation offered by him is not, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, satisfactory, the value of the investments may be deemed to be the income of the assessee of such financial year.

Section 69A- UNEXPLAINED MONEY, ETC.

Where in any financial year the assessee is found to be the owner of any money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article and such money, bullion, jewellery or valuable article is not recorded in the books of account, if any, maintained by him for any source of income, and the assessee offers no explanation about the nature and source of acquisition of the money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article, or the explanation offered by him is not, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, satisfactory, the money and the value of the bullion, jewellery or other valuable article may be deemed to be the income of the assessee of such financial year.

Section 69B- AMOUNT OF INVESTMENTS, ETC., NOT FULLY DISCLOSED IN BOOKS OF ACCOUNT.

Where in any financial year the assessee has made investments or is found to be the owner of any bullion, jewellery, or other valuable article, and the Assessing Officer finds that the amount expended on making such investments or in acquiring such bullion, jewellery or other valuable article exceeds the amount recorded in this behalf in the books of account maintained by the assessee for any source of income, and the assessee offers no explanation about such excess amount or the explanation offered by him is not, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, satisfactory, the excess amount may be deemed to be the income of the assessee for such financial year

Section 69C- UNEXPLAINED EXPENDITURE, ETC.

Where in any financial year an assessee has incurred any expenditure and he offers no explanation about the source of such expenditure or part thereof, or the explanation, if any, offered by him is not, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, satisfactory, the amount covered by such expenditure or part thereof, as the case may be, may be deemed to be the income of the assessee for such financial year;

Provided that, notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, such unexplained expenditure which is deemed to be the income of the assessee shall not be allowed as a deduction under any head of income

Section 69D- AMOUNT BORROWED OR REPAID ON HUNDI.

Where any amount is borrowed on a hundi from, or any amount due thereon is repaid to, any person otherwise than through an account payee cheque drawn on a bank, the amount so borrowed or repaid shall be deemed to be the income of the person borrowing or repaying the amount aforesaid for the previous year in which the amount was borrowed or repaid, as the case may be :

Provided that, if in any case amount borrowed on hundi has been deemed under the provisions of this section to be the income of any person, such person shall not be liable to be assessed again in respect of such amount under the provisions of this section on repayment of such amount.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, the amount repaid shall include the amount of interest paid on the amount borrowed.

Section 70- SET OFF OF LOSS FROM ONE SOURCE AGAINST INCOME FROM ANOTHER SOURCE UNDER THE SAME HEAD OF INCOME.

Save as otherwise provided in this Act, where the net result for any assessment year in respect of any source falling under any head of income is a loss, the assessee shall be entitled to have the amount of such loss set off against his income from any other source under the same head.

 Section 71- SET OFF OF LOSS FROM ONE HEAD AGAINST INCOME FROM ANOTHER.

(1) Where in respect of any assessment year, the net result of the computation under any head of income, other than “Capital gains”, is a loss and the assessee has no income under the head “Capital gains”, he shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be entitled to have the amount of such loss set off against his income, if any, assessable for that assessment year under any other head 924 .

(2) Where in respect of any assessment year, the net result of the computation under any head of income, other than “Capital gains”, is a loss and the assessee has income assessable under the head “Capital gains”, such loss may, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be set off against his income, if any, assessable for that assessment year under any head of income including the head “Capital gains” (whether relating to short-term capital assets or any other capital assets).

(3) Where in respect of any assessment year, the net result of the computation under the head “Capital gains” is a loss and the assessee has income assessable under any other head of income, the assessee shall not be entitled to have such loss set off against income under the other head.

 (4) where the net result of the computation under the head “Income from house property” is a loss, in respect of the assessment years commencing on the 1st day of April, 1995 and the 1st day of April, 1996, such loss shall be first set off under sub-sections (1) and (2) and thereafter the loss referred to in section 71A shall be set of in the relevant assessment year in accordance with the provisions of that section.

Section 71A- TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR SET OFF OF LOSS UNDER THE HEAD “INCOME FROM HOUSE PROPERTY”.

Where in respect of the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1993 or the 1st day of April, 1994, the net result of the computation under the head “Income from house property” is a loss, such loss in so far as it relates to interest on borrowed capital referred to in clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 24 and to the extent it has not been set off shall be carried forward and set off in the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1995, and the balance, if any, in the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1996, against the income under any head.

Section 71B- CARRY FORWARD AND SET OFF OF LOSS FROM HOUSE PROPERTY.

Where for any assessment year the net result of computation under the head “Income from house property” is a loss to the assessee and such loss cannot be or is not wholly set-off against income from any other head of income in accordance with the provisions of section 71, so much of the loss as has not been so set-off or where he has not income under any other head, the whole loss shall, subject to the other provisions of this Chapter, be carried forward to the following assessment year and - (i) Be set-off against the income from house property assessable for that assessment year; and

(ii) The loss, if any, which has not been set-off wholly, the amount of loss not so set-off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year, not being more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the loss was first computed

Section 72- CARRY FORWARD AND SET OFF OF BUSINESS LOSSES.

(1) Where for any assessment year, the net result of the computation under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” is a loss to the assessee, not being a loss sustained in a speculation business, and such loss cannot be or is not wholly set off against income under any head of income in accordance with the provisions of section 71, so much of the loss as has not been so set off or, where he has no income under any other head, the whole loss shall, subject to the other provisions of this

 Chapter, be carried forward to the following assessment year, and - (i) It shall be set be off against the profits and gains, if any, of any business or profession carried on by him and assessable for that assessment year :

Provided that the business or profession for which the loss was originally computed continued to be carried on by him in the previous year relevant for that assessment year; and

(ii) If the loss cannot be wholly set off, the amount of loss not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on 925 ] :

Provided that where the whole or any part of such loss is sustained in any such business as is referred to in section 33B which is discontinued in the circumstances specified in that section, and thereafter, at any time before the expiry of the period of three years referred to in that section, such business is re-established, reconstructed or revived by the assessee, so much of the loss as is attributable to such business shall be carried forward to the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the business is so re-established, reconstructed or revived, and -

 (a) It shall be set off against the profits and gains, if any, of that business or any other business carried on by him and assessable for that assessment year; and

(b) If the loss cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of loss not so set off shall, in case the business so re-established, reconstructed or revived continues to be carried on by the assessee, be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on for seven assessment years immediately succeeding.

 (2) Where any allowance or part thereof is, under sub-section (2) of section 32 or sub-section (4) of section 35, to be carried forward, effect shall first be given to provisions of this section.

 (3) No loss (other than the loss referred to in the proviso to sub-section (1) of this section) shall be carried forward under this section for more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the loss was first computed

Section 72A- PROVISIONS RELATING TO CARRY FORWARD AND SET OFF OF ACCUMULATED LOSS AND UNABSORBED DEPRECIATION ALLOWANCE IN AMALGAMATION OR DEMERGER, ETC. -

(1) Where there has been an amalgamation of a company owning an industrial undertaking or a ship with another company and the Central Government, on the recommendation of the specified authority, is satisfied that the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) The amalgamating company was not immediately before such amalgamation, financially viable by reason of its liabilities, losses and other relevant factors;

(b) The amalgamation was in the public interest; and

(c) Such other conditions as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, to ensure that the benefit under this section is restricted to amalgamations which would facilitate the rehabilitation or revival of the business of the amalgamating company, then, the Central Government may make a declaration to that effect, and thereupon, notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, the accumulated loss and the unabsorbed depreciation of the amalgamating company shall be deemed to be the loss or, as the case may be, allowance for depreciation of the amalgamated company for the previous year in which the amalgamation was effected, and the other provisions of this Act relating to set off and carry forward of loss and allowance for depreciation shall apply accordingly.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the accumulated loss shall not be set off or carried forward and the unabsorbed depreciation shall not be allowed in the assessment of the amalgamated company unless the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) During the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which such set off or allowance is claimed, the business of the amalgamating company is carried on by the amalgamated company without any modification or reorganisation or with such modification or reorganisation as may be approved by the Central Government to enable the amalgamated company to carry on such business more economically or more efficiently;

(ii) The amalgamated company furnishes, along with its return of income for the said assessment year, a certificate from the specified authority to the effect that adequate steps have been taken by that company for the rehabilitation or revival of the business of the amalgamating company.

(3) Where a company owning an industrial undertaking or a ship proposes to amalgamate with any other company and such other company submits the proposed scheme of amalgamation to the specified authority and that authority is satisfied, after examining the scheme and taking into account all relevant facts, that the conditions referred to in sub-section (1) would be fulfilled if such amalgamation is effected in accordance with such scheme or, as the case may be, in accordance with such scheme as modified in such manner as that authority may specify, it shall intimate such other company that, after the amalgamation is effected in accordance with such scheme or, as the case may be, such scheme as so modified, it would make (unless there is any material change in the relevant facts) a recommendation to the Central Government under sub-section (1).

(4) Where there has been reorganisation of business, whereby, a firm is succeeded by a company fulfilling the conditions laid down in clause (xiii) of section 47 or a proprietary concern is succeeded by a company fulfilling the conditions laid down in clause (xiv) of section 47, then, notwithstanding anything contained in any other provisions of this Act, the accumulated loss and the unabsorbed depreciation of the predecessor firm or the proprietary concern, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the loss or allowance for depreciation of the successor company for the previous year in which business reorganisation was effected and other provisions of this act relating to set off and carry forward of loss and allowance for depreciation shall apply accordingly :-

Provided that if any of the conditions laid down in the proviso to clause (xiii) or the proviso to clause (xiv) to section 47 are not complied with, the set off of loss or allowance of depreciation made in any previous year in the hands of the successor company, shall be deemed to be the income of the company chargeable to tax in the year in which such conditions are not complied with.

(5) For the purposes of sub-section (4),- (a) “Accumulated loss” means so much of the loss of the predecessor firm or the proprietary concern, as the case may be, under the head Profits and gains of business or profession’ (not being a loss sustained in a speculation business) which such predecessor firm or the proprietary concern would have been entitled to carry forward and set off under the provisions of section 72 if the reorganisation of business had not taken place,

(b) “Unabsorbed depreciation” means so much of the allowance for depreciation of the predecessor firm or the proprietary concern, as the case may be, which remains to be allowed and which would have been allowed to the predecessor firm or the proprietary concern, as the case may be, under the provisions of this Act, if the reorganisation of business had not taken place.

Section 73- LOSSES IN SPECULATION BUSINESS.

(1) Any loss, computed in respect of a speculation business 932 carried on by the assessee, shall not be set off except against profits and gains, if any, of another speculation business.

(2) Where for any assessment year any loss computed in respect of a speculation business has not been wholly set off under sub-section (1), so much of the loss as is not so set off or the whole loss where the assessee had no income from any other speculation business shall, subject to the other provisions of this Chapter, be carried forward to the following assessment year, and -

 (i) It shall be set off against the profits and gains, if any, of any speculation business carried on by him assessable for that assessment year; and

(ii) If the loss cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of loss not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on.

(3) In respect of allowance on account of depreciation or capital expenditure on scientific research, the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 72 shall apply in relation to speculation business as they apply in relation to any other business.

(4) No loss shall be carried forward under this section for more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the loss was first computed.

 Explanation : Where any part of the business of a company other than a company whose gross total income consists mainly of income which is chargeable under the heads “Interest on securities”, “Income from house property”, “Capital gains” and “Income from other sources”, or a company the principal business of which is the business of banking or the granting of loans and advances) consists in the purchase and sale of shares of other companies, such company shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be carrying on a speculation business to the extent to which the business consists of the purchase and sale of such shares.

Section 74- LOSSES UNDER THE HEAD “CAPITAL GAINS”.

(1) Where in respect of any assessment year, the net result of the computation under the head “Capital gains” is a loss to the assessee, the whole loss shall, subject to the other provisions of this Chapter, be carried forward to the following assessment year, and - (a) It shall be set off aginst income, if any, under the head “Capital gains” assessable for that assessment year; and

 (b) If the loss cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of loss not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year, and so on.

 (2) No loss shall be carried forward under this section for more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the loss was first computed.

 (3) Any loss computed under the head “Capital gains” in respect of the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1987, or any earlier assessment year which is carried forward in accordance with the provisions of this section as it stood before the 1st day of April, 1988, shall be dealt with in the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, or any subsequent assessment year as follows :- (a) In so far as such loss relates to short-term capital assets, it shall be carried forward and set off in accordance with the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2);

 (b) In so far as such loss relates to long-term capital assets, it shall be reduced by the deductions specified in sub-section (2) of section 48 and the reduced amount shall be carried forward and set off in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) but such carry forward shall not be allowed beyond the fourth assessment year immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the loss was first computed

Section 74A- LOSSES FROM CERTAIN SPECIFIED SOURCES FALLING UNDER THE HEAD “INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES”.

(1) In the case of an assessee, being the owner of horses maintained by him for running in horse races (such horses being hereafter in this sub-section referred to as race horses), the amount of the loss incurred by the assessee in the activity of owning and maintaining race horses in any assessment year shall not be set off against income, if any, from any source other than the activity of owning and maintaining race horses in that year and shall, subject to the other provisions of this Chapter, be carried forward to the following assessment year and – (a) It shall be set off against the income, if any, from the activity of owning and maintaining race horses assessable for that assessment year :

Provided that the activity of owning and maintaining race horses is carried on by him in the previous year relevant for that assessment year; and (b) if the loss cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of loss not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and so on; so, however, that no portion of the loss shall be carried forward for more than four assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the loss was first computed.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section – (a) “Amount of loss incurred by the assessee in the activity of owning and maintaining race horses” means – (i) In a case where the assessee has no income by way of stake money, the amount of expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure) laid out or expended by him wholly and exclusively for the purposes of maintaining race horses;

(ii) In a case where the assessee has income by way of stake money, the amount by which such income falls short of the amount of expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure) laid out or expended by the assessee wholly and exclusively for the purposes of maintaining race horses;

(b) “Horse race” means a horse race upon which wagering or betting may be lawfully made;

(c) Income by way of stake money means the gross amount of prize money received on a race horse or race horses by the owner thereof on account of the horse or horses or any one or more of the horses winning or being placed second or in any lower position in horse races.

Section 75- LOSSES OF FIRMS.

Where the assessee is a firm, any loss in relation to the assessment year commencing on or before the 1st day of April, 1992, which could not be set off against any other income of the firm and which had been apportioned to a partner of the firm but could not be set off by such partner prior to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1993, then, such loss shall be allowed to be set off against the income of the firm subject to the condition that the partner continues in the said firm and to be carried forward for set off under sections 70, 71, 72, 73, 74 and 74A.

Section 78- CARRY FORWARD AND SET OFF OF LOSSES IN CASE OF CHANGE IN CONSTITUTION OF FIRM OR ON SUCCESSION.

(1) Where a change has occurred in the constitution of a firm, nothing in this Chapter shall entitle the firm to have carried forward and set off so much of the loss proportionate to the share of a retired or deceased partner as exceeds his share of profits, if any, in the firm in respect of the previous year.

(2) Where any person carrying on any business or profession has been succeeded in such capacity by another person otherwise than by inheritance, nothing in this Chapter shall entitle any person other than the person incurring the loss to have it carried forward and set off against his income.

Section 79- CARRY FORWARD AND SET OFF OF LOSSES IN THE CASE OF CERTAIN COMPANIES.

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, where a change in shareholding has taken place in a previous year in the case of a company, not being a company in which the public are substantially interested, no loss incurred in any year prior to the previous year shall be carried forward and set off against the income of the previous year unless -  (a) On the last day of the previous year the shares of the company carrying not less than fifty-one per cent of the voting power were beneficially held by persons who beneficially held shares of the company carrying not less than fifty-one per cent of the voting power on the last day of the year or years in which the loss was incurred :

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall apply to a case where a change in the said voting power takes place in a previous year consequent upon the death of a shareholder or on account of transfer of shares by way of gift to any relative of the shareholder making such gift.

 Provided further that nothing contained in this section shall apply to any change in the shareholding of an Indian company which is a subsidiary of a foreign company as a result of amalgamation or demerger of a foreign company subject to the condition that fifty-one per cent shareholders of the amalgamating or demerged foreign company continue to be the shareholders of the amalgamated or the resulting foreign company.

 Section 80- SUBMISSION OF RETURN FOR LOSSES.

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, no loss which has not been determined in pursuance of a return filed in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 139, shall be carried forward and set off under sub-section (1) of section 72 or sub-section (2) of section 73 or Sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) of section 74 or sub-section (3) of section 74A

Section 80A- DEDUCTIONS TO BE MADE IN COMPUTING TOTAL INCOME.

 (1) In computing the total income of an assessee, there shall be allowed from his gross total income, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this Chapter, the deductions specified in sections 80C to 80U.

 (2) The aggregate amount of the deductions under this Chapter shall not, in any case, exceed the gross total income of the assessee.

 (3) Where, in computing the total income of an association of persons or a body of individuals, any deduction is admissible under section 80G or section 80GGA or section 80HH or section 80HHA or section 80HHB or section 80HHC or section 80HHD or section 80-I or section 80-IA, 80-IB or section 80J or section 80JJ, no deduction under the same section shall be made in computing the total income of a member of the association of persons or body of individuals in relation to the share of such member in the income of the association of persons or body of individuals.

Section 80AA- COMPUTATION OF DEDUCTION UNDER SECTION 80M.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1997, W.E.F. 1-4-1998

Section 80AB- DEDUCTIONS TO BE MADE WITH REFERENCE TO THE INCOME INCLUDED IN THE GROSS TOTAL INCOME.

Where any deduction is required to be made or allowed under any section included in this Chapter under the heading “C. – Deductions in respect of certain incomes” in respect of any income of the nature specified in that section which is included in the gross total income of the assessee, then, notwithstanding anything contained in that section, for the purpose of computing the deduction under that section, the amount of income of that nature as computed in accordance with the provisions of this Act (before making any deduction under this Chapter) shall alone be deemed to be the amount of income of that nature which is derived or received by the assessee and which is included in his gross total income

Section 80B- DEFINITIONS.

In this Chapter - (1) “Gross total income” means the total income computed in accordance with the provisions of this Act, before making any deduction under this Chapter;

Section 80C- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF LIFE INSURANCE PREMIA, CONTRIBUTIONS TO PROVIDENT FUND, ETC.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1990, W.E.F. 1-4-1991

Section 80CC- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF INVESTMENT IN CERTAIN NEW SHARES.

 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE (NO. 2) ACT, 1996, W.R.E.F. 1-4-1993

Section 80CCA- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF DEPOSITS UNDER NATIONAL SAVINGS SCHEME OR PAYMENT TO A DEFERRED ANNUITY PLAN.

 (1) Where an assessee, being -

(a) An individual, or

(b) A Hindu undivided family, has in the previous year -

(i) Deposited any amount in accordance with such scheme as the Central Government may, by notification 995 in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf; or

(ii) Paid any amount to effect or to keep in force a contract for such annuity plan of the Life Insurance Corporation as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify 996 , out of his income chargeable to tax, he shall, in accordance with, and subject to, the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction in the computation of his total income of the whole of the amount deposited or paid (excluding interest or bonus accrued or credited to the assessee’s account, if any) as does not exceed the amount of twenty thousand rupees in the previous year :

Provided that in relation to - (a) The assessment years commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989 and the 1st day of April, 1990, this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “twenty thousand rupees”, the words “thirty thousand rupees” had been substituted;

 (b) The assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1991 and subsequent assessment years, this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “twenty thousand rupees”, the words “forty thousand rupees” had been substituted :

Provided further that no deduction under this sub-section shall be allowed in relation to any amount deposited or paid under clauses (i) and (ii) on or after the 1st day of April, 1992. (2) Where any amount - (a) Standing to the credit of the assessee under the scheme referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1) in respect of which a deduction has been allowed under sub-section (1) together with the interest accrued on such amount is withdrawn in whole or in part in any previous year, or

 (b) Is received on account of the surrender of the policy or as annuity or bonus in accordance with the annuity plan of the Life Insurance Corporation in any previous year, an amount equal to the whole of the amount referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) shall be deemed to be the income of the assessee of that previous year in which such withdrawal is made or, as the case may be, amount is received, and shall, accordingly, be chargeable to tax as the income of that previous year 998 :

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to any amount received by the assessee on account of the surrender of the policy in accordance with the terms of the annuity plan of the Life Insurance Corporation where the assessee elects to surrender before the 1st day of October, 1992, the said annuity plan in respect of which he had paid any amount under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) before the 1st day of April, 1992.

 (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, where a partition has taken place among the members of a Hindu undivided family or where an association of persons has been dissolved after a deduction has been allowed under sub-section (1), the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply as if the person in receipt of income referred to therein is the assessee.

 Explanation I : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that interest on the deposits made under the scheme referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1) Shall not be chargeable to tax except in the manner and to the extent specified in sub-section (2).

 Explanation II : For the purposes of this section, “Life Insurance Corporation” shall have the same meaning as in clause (a) of sub-section (8) of section 80C.

Section 80CCB- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF INVESTMENT MADE UNDER EQUITY LINKED SAVINGS SCHEME.

 (1) Where an assessee, being -

 (a) An individual, or

(b) A Hindu undivided family, has acquired in the previous year, out of his income chargeable to tax, units of any Mutual Fund specified under clause (23D) of section 10 or of the Unit Trust of India established under the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963), under any plan formulated in accordance with such scheme 999f as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf (hereafter in this section referred to as the Equity Linked Savings Scheme), he shall, in accordance with, and subject to, the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction in the computation of his total income of so much of the amount invested as does not exceed the amount of ten thousand rupees in the previous year :

Provided that no deduction shall be allowed in relation to any amount invested under this sub-section on or after the 1st day of April, 1992.

(2) Where any amount invested by the assessee in the units issued under a plan formulated under the Equity Linked Savings Scheme in respect of which a deduction has been allowed under sub-section (1) is returned to him in whole or in part either by way of repurchase of such units or on the termination of the plan, by the Fund or the Trust, as the case may be, in any previous year, it shall be deemed to be the income of the assessee of that previous year and chargeable to tax accordingly.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, where a partition has taken place among the members of a Hindu undivided family or where an association of persons has been dissolved after a deduction has been allowed under sub-section (1), the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply as if the person in receipt of income referred to therein is the assessee.

Section 80CCC- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF CONTRIBUTION TO CERTAIN PENSION FUNDS.

(1) Where an assessee being an individual has in the previous year paid or deposited any amount out of his income chargeable to tax to effect or keep in force a contract for any annuity plan of Life Insurance Corporation of India for receiving pension from the fund referred to in clause (23AAB) of section 10, he shall, in accordance with, and subject to, the provisions of this section, be allowed a deduction in the computation of his total income, of the whole of the amount paid or deposited (excluding interest or bonus accrued or credited to the assessee’s account, if any) as does not exceed the amount of ten thousand rupees in the previous year.

(2) Where any amount standing to the credit of the assessee in a fund, referred to in sub-section (1) in respect of which a deduction has been allowed under sub-section (1), together with the interest or bonus accrued or credited to the assessee’s account, if any, is received by the assessee or his nominee-

 (a) On account of the surrender of the annuity plan whether in whole or in part, in any previous year, or

 (b) As pension received from the annuity plan, an amount equal to the whole of the amount referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) shall be deemed to be the income of the assessee or his nominee, as the case may be, in that previous year in which such withdrawal is made or, as the case may be, pension is received, and shall accordingly be chargeable to tax as income of that previous year.

(3) Where any amount paid or deposited by the assessee has been taken into account for the purposes of this section, a rebate with reference to such amount shall not be allowed under section 88

Section 80D- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF MEDICAL INSURANCE PREMIA.

 (1) In computing the total income of an assessee, there shall be deducted, at the following rates, such sum as is specified in sub-section (2) and paid by him by cheque in the previous year out of his income chargeable to tax, namely :-

 (i) In a case where such sum does not exceed in the aggregate ten thousand rupees, the whole of such sum; and

 (ii) In any other case, ten thousand rupees.

Provided that where the sum specified in sub-section (2) is paid to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of the assessee, or his wife or her husband or dependant parents or any member of the family in case the assessee is a Hindu undivided family, and who is a senior citizen, the provisions of this section shall have effect as if for the words “ten thousand rupees”, the words “fifteen thousand rupees” had been substituted.

 (2) The sum referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :-

 (a) Where the assessee is an individual, any sum paid to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of the assessee or on the health of the wife or husband, dependent parents or dependent children of the assessee;

(b) Where the assessee is a Hindu undivided family, any sum paid to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of any member of the family;

 Provided that such insurance shall be in accordance with a scheme 1001c framed in this behalf by the General Insurance Corporation of India formed under section 9 of the General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (57 of 1972), and approved by the Central Government in this behalf.

Explanation : For the purpose of this section, “senior citizen” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to section 80DDB.

Section 80DD- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF MAINTENANCE INCLUDING MEDICAL TREATMENT OF HANDICAPPED DEPENDENT.

(1) In computing the total income of an assessee who is a resident of India, being an individual or a Hindu undivided family, there shall be deducted, in accordance with the subject to the provisions of this section, the amount -

 (a) Of expenditure incurred by way of medical treatment (including nursing), training and rehabilitation of a handicapped dependent; or

(b) Paid or deposited under any scheme framed in this behalf by the Life Insurance Corporation or Unit Trust of India subject to the conditions specified in sub-section (2) and approved by the Board in this behalf for the maintenance of handicapped dependant, out of his income chargeable to tax :

 Provided that no such amount shall exceed forty thousand rupees in the aggregate under clause (a) or clause (b) or both.

(2) The deduction under clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall be allowed only if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) The scheme referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) provides for payment of annuity or lump sum amount for the benefit of a handicapped dependant in the event of the death of the individual or the member of the Hindu undivided family in whose name subscription to the scheme has been made;

(b) The assessee nominates either the handicapped dependant or any other person or a trust to receive the payment on his behalf, for the benefit of the handicapped dependant.

 (3) If the handicapped dependant predeceases the individual or the member of the Hindu undivided family referred to in sub-section (2), an amount equal to the amount paid or deposited under clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the income of the assessee of the previous year in which such amount is received by the assessee and shall accordingly be chargeable to tax as the income of that previous year.

 (4) In this section, -

(a) “Government hospital” includes a departmental dispensary whether full-time or part-time established and run by a Department of the Government for the medical attendance and treatment of a class or classes of Government servants and members of their families, a hospital maintained by a local authority and any other hospital maintained by a local authority and any other hospital with which arrangements have been made by the Government for the treatment of Government servants;

 (b) “Handicapped dependant” means a person who -

(i) is a relative of the individual or, as the case may be, is a member of the Hindu undivided family and is not dependant on any person other than such individual or Hindu undivided family for his support or maintenance; and

(ii) Is suffering from a permanent physical disability (including blindness) or is subject to mental retardation, being a permanent physical disability or mental retardation specified in the rules made by the Board for the purposes of this section, which is certified by a physician, a surgeon, an oculist or a psychiatrist, as the case may be, working in a Government hospital, and which has the effect of reducing considerably such person’s capacity for normal work or engaging in gainful employment or occupation;

(c) “Life Insurance Corporation” shall have the same meaning as in clause

(iii) of sub-section (8) of section 88; (d) “Unit Trust of India” means the Unit Trust of India established under the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963)

Section 80DDB- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF MEDICAL TREATMENT, ETC.

Where an assessee who is resident in India has, during the previous year, actually incurred any expenditure for the medical treatment of such disease or ailment as may be specified in the rules made in this behalf by the Board - (a) For himself or a dependant relative, in case the assessee is an individual; or

(b) For any member of a Hindu undivided family, in case the assessee is a Hindu undivided family, the assessee shall be allowed a deduction of a sum of fifteen thousand rupees in respect of that previous year in which such expenditure was incurred :

 Provided that no such deduction shall be allowed unless the assessee furnishes a certificate in such form and from such authority as may be prescribed.

 Provided further that the deduction under this section shall be reduced by the amount received, if any, under an insurance from an insurer for the medical treatment of the person referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) :

 Provided also that where the expenditure incurred is in respect of the assessee or his dependant relative or any member of a Hindu undivided family of the assessee and who is a senior citizen, the provisions of this section shall have effect as if for the words “forty thousand rupees”, the words “sixty thousand rupees” had been substituted.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, ”dependant” means a person who is not dependant for his support or maintenance on any person other than the assessee

Section 80E- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF REPAYMENT OF LOAN TAKEN FOR HIGHER EDUCATION.

(1) In computing the total income of an assessee, being an individual, there shall be deducted, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, any amount paid by him in the previous year, out of his income chargeable to tax, by way of repayment of loan, taken by him from any financial institution or any approved charitable institution for the purpose of pursuing his higher education, or interest on such loan :

 Provided that the amount which may be so deducted shall not exceed twenty-five thousand rupees.

(2) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) shall be allowed in computing the total income in respect of the initial assessment year and seven assessment years immediately succeeding the initial assessment year or until loan referred to in sub-section (1) together with interest thereon is paid by the assessee in full, whichever is earlier.

 (3) For the purposes of this section, -

(a) “Approved charitable institution” means an institution specified in, or, as the case may be, an institution established for charitable purposes and notified by the Central Government under clause (23C) of section 10 or an institution referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 80G;

 (b) “Financial institution” means a banking company to which the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949) applies (including any bank or banking institution referred to in section 51 of that Act); or any other financial institution which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

 (c) “Higher education” means full-time studies for any graduate or post-graduate course in engineering, medicine, management or for post-graduate course in applied sciences or pure sciences including mathematics and statistics 1002f ;

(d) “Initial assessment year” means the assessment year relevant to the previous year, in which the assessee starts repaying the loan or interest thereon.

Section 80F- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES IN CERTAIN CASES.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1985, W.E.F. 1-4-1986

Section 80FF-DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF EXPENSES ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN CERTAIN CASES.

 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE (NO. 2) ACT, 1980, W.E.F. 1-4-1981

Section 80G-DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF DONATIONS TO CERTAIN FUNDS, CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS, ETC.

 (1) In computing the total income of an assessee, there shall be deducted, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, -

 (i) In a case where the aggregate of the sums specified in sub-section (2) includes any sum or sums of the nature specified in sub-clause (iiia) or in sub-clause (iiiaa) or in sub-clause (iiiab) or in sub-clause (iiie) or in sub-clause (iiif) or in sub-clause (iiig) or in sub-clause (iiih) sub-clause (iiiha) or sub-clause (iiihb) or sub-clause (iiihc) or sub-clause (iiihd) or sub-clause (iiihe) or sub-clause (iiihf) or sub-clause (iiihg) or sub-clause (iiihh) or sub-clause (iiihi) or in sub-clause (vii) of clause (a) thereof, an amount equal to the whole of the sum or, as the case may be, sums of such nature plus fifty per cent of the balance of such aggregate; and

 (ii) In any other case, an amount equal to fifty per cent of the aggregate of the sums specified in sub-section (2).

 (2) The sums referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :- (a) Any sums paid by the assessee in the previous year as donations to -

(i) The National Defence Fund set up by the Central Government; or

(ii) The Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund referred to in the Deed of Declaration of Trust adopted by the National Committee at its meeting held on the 17th day of August, 1964; or

 (iii) The Prime Minister’s Drought Relief Fund; or

(iiia) The Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund; or

 (iiiaa) The Prime Minister’s Armenia Earthquake Relief Fund; or

 (iiiab) The Africa (Public Contributions – India) Fund; or

(iiib) The National Children’s Fund; or

(iiic) The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust, the deed of declaration in respect whereof was registered at New Delhi on the 21st day of February, 1985; or

(iiid) The Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, the deed of declaration in respect whereof was registered at New Delhi on the 21st day of June, 1991; or

(iiie) The National Foundation for Communal Harmony; or

 (iiif) A University or any educational institution of national eminence as may be approved by the prescribed authority in this behalf; or

 (iiig) The Maharashtra Chief Minister’s Relief Fund during the period beginning on the 1st day of October, 1993 and ending on the 6th day of October, 1993 or to the Chief Minister’s Earthquake Relief Fund, Maharashtra; or

(iiih) Any Zila Saksharta Samiti constituted in any district under the chairmanship of the Collector of that district for the purposes of improvement of primary education in villages and towns in such district and for literacy and post-literacy activities.

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, “town” means a town which has a population not exceeding one lakh according to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year; or

 (iiiha) The National Blood Transfusion Council or to any State Blood Transfusion Council which has its sole object the control, supervision, regulation or encouragement in India of the services related to operation and requirements of blood banks.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-clause, -

(a) “National Blood Transfusion Council” means as society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1960) and has an officer not below the rank of an Additional Secretary to the Government of India dealing with the AIDS Control Project as its Chairman, by whatever name called;

(b) “State Blood Transfusion Council” means a society registered, in consultation with the National Blood Transfusion Council, under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860) or under any law corresponding to that Act in force in any part of India and has Secretary to the Government of that State dealing with the Department of Health, as its

Chairman, by whatever name called; or

(iiihb) Any fund set up by a State Government to provide medical relief to the poor; or

 (iiihc) The Army Central Welfare Fund or the Indian Naval Benevolent Fund or the Air Force Central Welfare Fund established by the armed forces of the Union for the welfare of the past and present members of such forces or their dependants; or

(iiihd) The Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister’s Cyclone Relief Fund, 1996; or

(iiihe) The National Illness Assistance Fund; or

(iiihf) The Chief Minister’s Relief Fund or the Lieutenant Governor’s Relief Fund in respect of any State or Union territory, as the case may be :

Provided that such Fund is - (a) The only Fund of its kind established in the State or the Union territory, as the case may be;

 (b) Under the overall control of the Chief Secretary or the Department of Finance of the State or the Union territory, as the case may be;

(c) Administered in such manner as may be specified by the State Government or the Lieutenant Governor, as the case may be; or

(iiihg) The National Sports Fund to be set up by the Central Government; or

(iiihh) The National Cultural Fund set up by the Central Government; or

(iiihi) The Fund for Technology Development and Application set up by the Central Government; or

(iv) Any other fund or any institution to which this section applies; or

(v) The Government or any local authority, to be utilised, for any charitable purpose other than the purpose of promoting family planning; or

 (vi) Any authority referred to in clause (20A) of section 10; or

(via) Any corporation referred to in clause (26BB) of section 10; or

(vii) The Government or to any such local authority, institution or association as may be approved 1014 in this behalf by the Central Government, to be utilised for the purposes of promoting family planning;

(b) Any sums paid by the assessee in the previous year as donation for the renovation or repair of any such temple, mosque, gurdwara, church or other place as is notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette to be of historic, archaeological or artistic importance or to be a place of public worship or renown throughout any State or States.

 (4) Where the aggregate of the sums referred to in sub-clauses (iv), (v), (vi), (via) and (vii) of clause (a) and in clause (b) of sub-section (2) exceeds ten per cent of the gross total income (as reduced by any portion thereof on which income-tax is not payable under any provision of this Act and by any amount in respect of which the assessee is entitled to a deduction under any other provision of this Chapter), then the amount in excess of ten per cent of the gross total income shall be ignored for the purpose of computing the aggregate of the sums in respect of which deduction is to be allowed under sub-section (1).

(5) This section applies to donations to any institution or fund referred to in sub-clause (iv) of clause (a) of sub-section (2), only if it is established in India for a charitable purpose and if it fulfils the following conditions, namely :- (i) Where the institution or fund derives any income, such income would not be liable to inclusion in its total income under the provisions of sections 11 and 12 or clause (23) or clause (23AA) or clause (23C) of section 10 :

Provided that where an institution or fund derives any income, being profits and gains of business, the condition that such income would not be liable to inclusion in its total income under the provisions of section 11 shall not apply in relation to such income, if -

 (a) The institution or fund maintains separate books of account in respect of such business;

(b) The donations made to the institution or fund are not used by it, directly or indirectly, for the purposes of such business; and

(c) The institution or fund issues to the person making the donation a certificate to the effect that it maintains separate books of account in respect of such business and that the donations received by it will not be used, directly or indirectly, for the purposes of such business;

(ii) The instrument under which the institution or fund is constituted does not, or the rules governing the institution or fund do not, contain any provision for the transfer or application at any time of the whole or any part of the income or assets of the institution or fund for any purpose other than a charitable purpose;

(iii) The institution or fund is not expressed to be for the benefit of any particular religious community or caste;

(iv) The institution or fund maintains regular accounts of its receipts and expenditure;

 (v) The institution or fund is either constituted as a public charitable trust or is registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), or under any law corresponding to that Act in force in any part of India or under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), or is a University established by law, or is any other educational institution recognised by the Government or by a University established by law, or affiliated to any University established by law or is an institution approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (23) of section 10, 1022 ] or is an institution financed wholly or in part by the Government or a local authority;

 (vi) In relation to donations made after the 31st day of March, 1992, the institution or fund is for the time being approved by the Commissioner in accordance with the rules made in this behalf :

Provided that any approval shall have effect for such assessment year or years, not exceeding five assessment years, as may be specified in the approval.

 (5A) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any sum specified in sub-section (2), the sum in respect of which deduction is so allowed shall not qualify for deduction under any other provisions of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

(5B) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (ii) of sub-section (5) and Explanation 3, an institution or fund which incurs expenditure, during any previous year, which is of a religious nature for an amount not exceeding five per cent. of its total income in that previous year shall be deemed to be an institution or fund to which the provisions of this section apply.

 Explanation 1 : An institution or fund established for the benefit of Scheduled Castes, backward classes, Scheduled Tribes or of women and children shall not be deemed to be an institution or fund expressed to be for the benefit of a religious community or caste within the meaning of clause (iii) of sub-section (5).

Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that a deduction to which the assessee is entitled in respect of any donation made to an institution or fund to which sub-section (5) applies shall not be denied merely on either or both of the following grounds, namely :-

 (i) That, subsequent to the donation, any part of the income of the institution or fund has become chargeable to tax due to non-compliance with any of the provisions of [ 1024a section 11, section 12 or section 12A;

(ii) That, under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 13, the exemption under section 11 or section 12 is denied to the institution or fund in relation to any income arising to it from any investment referred to in clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 where the aggregate of the funds invested by it in a concern referred to in the said clause (h) does not exceed five per cent of the capital of that concern.

 Explanation 3 : In this section "charitable purpose" does not include any purpose the whole or substantially the whole of which is of a religious nature.

Explanation 4 : For the purposes of this section, an association approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (23) of section 10 shall also be deemed to be an institution, and every association or institution approved by the Central Government for the purposes of the said clause shall be deemed to be an institution established in India for a charitable purpose.

 Explanation 5 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no deduction shall be allowed under this section in respect of any donation unless such donation is of a sum of money.

Section 80GG- DEDUCTIONS IN RESPECT OF RENTS PAID.

In computing the total income of an assessee, not being an assessee having any income falling within clause (13A) of section 10, there shall be deducted any expenditure incurred by him in excess of ten per cent of his total income towards payment of rent (by whatever name called) in respect of any furnished or unfurnished accommodation occupied by him for the purposes of his own residence, to the extent to which such excess expenditure does not exceed two thousand rupees per month or twenty-five per cent of his total income for the year, whichever is less, and subject to such other conditions or limitations as may be prescribed, having regard to the area or place in which such accommodation is situated and other relevant considerations :

 Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to an assessee in any case where any residential accommodation is -

(i) Owned by the assessee or by his spouse or minor child or, where such assessee is a member of a Hindu undivided family, at the place where he ordinarily resides or performs duties of his office or employment or carries on his business or profession; or

 (ii) Owned by the assessee at any other place, being accommodation in the occupation of the assessee, the value of which is to be determined under sub-clause (i) of clause (a) or, as the case may be, clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 23.

Explanation : In this section, the expressions "ten per cent of his total income" and "twenty-five per cent of his total income" shall mean ten per cent or twenty-five per cent, as the case may be, of the assessee's total income before allowing deduction for any expenditure under this section.

Section 80GGA- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF CERTAIN DONATIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OR RURAL DEVELOPMENT.

(1) In computing the total income of an assessee, there shall be deducted, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, the sums specified in sub-section (2).

 (2) The sums referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :-

 (a) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to a scientific

research association which has as its object the undertaking of scientific research or to a University, college or other institution to be used for scientific research :

Provided that such association, University, college or institution is for the time being approved for the purposes of clause (ii) of sub-section (1) of section 35;

(aa) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to a university, college or other institution to be used for research in social science or statistical research :

Provided that such university, college or institution is for the time being approved for the purposes of clause (iii) of sub-section (1) of section 35;

(b) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year - (i) To an association or institution, which has as its object the undertaking of any programme of rural development, to be used for carrying out any programme of rural development approved for the purposes of section 35CCA; or

(ii) To an association or institution which has as its object the training of persons for implementing programmes of rural development :

Provided that the assessee furnishes the certificate referred to in sub-section (2) or, as the case may be, sub-section (2A) of section 35CCA from such association or institution;

 (bb) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to a public sector company or a local authority or to an association or institution approved by the National Committee, for carrying out any eligible project or scheme :

Provided that the assessee furnishes the certificate referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 35AC from such public sector company or local authority or, as the case may be, association or institution.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expressions "National Committee" and "eligible project or scheme" shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Explanation to section 35AC;

(c) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to an association or institution, which has as its object the undertaking of any programme of conservation of natural resources or of afforestation to be used for carrying out any programme of conservation of natural resources or of afforestation approved for the purposes of section 35CCB :

 Provided that the association or institution is for the time being approved for the purposes of sub-section (2) of section 35CCB;

(cc) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to such fund for afforestation as is notified by the Central Government under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 35CCB;

 (d) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to a rural development fund set up and notified by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 35CCA.

(e) Any sum paid by the assessee in the previous year to the National Urban Poverty Eradication Fund set up and notified by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 35CCA.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), no deduction under this section shall be allowed in the case of an assessee whose gross total income includes income which is chargeable under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession".

(4) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed for any assessment year in respect of any payments of the nature specified in sub-section (2), deduction shall not be allowed in respect of such payments under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

Section 80H- DEDUCTION IN CASE OF NEW INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS EMPLOYING DISPLACED PERSONS, ETC.

OMITTED BY THE TAXATION LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1975, W.E.F. 1-4-1976

 Section 80HH- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM NEWLY ESTABLISHED INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS OR HOTEL BUSINESS IN BACKWARD AREAS.

(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking, or the business of a hotel, to which this section applies, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to twenty per cent thereof.

 (2) This section applies to any industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) It has begun or begins to manufacture or produce articles after the 31st day of December, 1970 but before the 1st day of April, 1990, in any backward area;

(ii) It is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence in any backward area :

 Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of any industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

(iii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose in any backward area;

(iv) It employs ten or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on with the aid of power, or employs twenty or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on without the aid of power.

Explanation : Where any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose in any backward area is transferred to a new business in that area or in any other backward area and the total value of the machinery or plant or part so transferred does not exceed twenty per cent of the total value of the machinery or plant used in the business, then, for the purposes of clause (iii) of this sub-section, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been fulfilled.

(3) This section applies to the business of any hotel, where all the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The business of the hotel has started or starts functioning after the 31st day of December, 1970 but before the 1st day of April, 1990, in any backward area;

 (ii) The business of the hotel is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence;

(iii) The hotel is for the time being approved for the purposes of this sub-section by the Central Government.

 (4) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) shall be allowed in computing the total income in respect of each of the ten assessment years beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year, in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or the business of the hotel starts functioning :

 Provided that, - (i) In the case of an industrial undertaking which has begun to manufacture or produce articles, and

(ii) In the case of the business of a hotel which has started functioning, after the 31st day of December, 1970, but before the 1st day of April, 1973, this sub-section shall have effect as if the reference to ten assessment years were a reference to ten assessment years as reduced by the number of assessment years which expired before the 1st day of April, 1974.

(5) Where the assessee is a person other than a company or a co-operative society the deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the accounts of the industrial undertaking or the business of the hotel for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form 1041a duly signed and verified by such accountant.

 (6) Where any goods held for the purposes of the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel are transferred to any other business carried on by the assessee, or where any goods held for the purposes of any other business carried on by the assessee are transferred to the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel and, in either case, the consideration, if any, for such transfer as recorded in the accounts of the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel does not correspond to the market value of such goods as on the date of the transfer, then, for the purposes of the deduction under this section, the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking or the business of the hotel shall be computed as if the transfer, in either case, had been made at the market value of such goods as on that date :

Provided that where, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, the computation of the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking or the business of the hotel in the manner hereinbefore specified presents exceptional difficulties, the Assessing Officer may compute such profits and gains on such reasonable basis as he may deem fit.

Explanation : In this sub-section, "market value", in relation to any goods means the price that such goods would ordinarily fetch on sale in the open market.

(7) Where it appears to the Assessing Officer that, owing to the close connection between the assessee carrying on the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel to which this section applies and any other person, or for any other reason, the course of business between them is so arranged that the business transacted between them produces to the assessee more than the ordinary profits which might be expected to arise in the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel, the Assessing Officer shall, in computing the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking or the hotel for the purposes of the deduction under this section, take the amount of profits as may be reasonably deemed to have been derived therefrom.

 (9) In a case where the assessee is entitled also to the deduction under section 80-I or section 80J in relation to the profits and gains of an industrial undertaking or the business of a hotel to which this section applies, effect shall first be given to the provisions of this section.

(9A) Where a deduction in relation to the profits and gains of a small scale industrial undertaking to which section 80HHA applies is claimed and allowed under that section for any assessment year, deduction in relation to such profits and gains shall not be allowed under this section for the same or any other assessment year.

(10) Nothing contained in this section shall apply in relation to any undertaking engaged in mining.

(11) For the purposes of this section, "backward area" means such area as the Central Government may, having regard to the stage of development of that area, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf :

Provided that any notification under this sub-section may be issued so as to have retrospective effect to a date not earlier than the 1st day of April, 1983.

Section 80HHA- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM NEWLY ESTABLISHED SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS IN CERTAIN AREAS.

(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived from a small-scale industrial undertaking to which this section applies, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to twenty per cent thereof.

(2) This section applies to any small-scale industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) It begins to manufacture or produce articles after the 30th day of September, 1977, but before the 1st day of April, 1990 1049 ], in any rural area;

(ii) It is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence :

Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of any small-scale industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in the section;

 (iii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

 (iv) It employs ten or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on with the aid of power, or employs twenty or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on without the aid of power.

 Explanation : Where in the case of a small-scale industrial undertaking, any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose is transferred to a new business and the total value of the machinery or plant or part so transferred does not exceed twenty per cent. of the total value of the machinery or plant used in the business, then, for the purposes of clause (iii) of this sub-section, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been fulfilled.

(3) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) shall be allowed in computing the total income of each of the ten previous years beginning with the previous year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles :

Provided that such deduction shall not be allowed in computing the total income of any of the ten previous years aforesaid in respect of which the industrial undertaking is not a small-scale industrial undertaking within the meaning of clause (b) of the Explanation below sub-section (8).

 (4) Where the assessee is a person, other then a company or a co-operative society, the deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the accounts of the small-scale industrial undertaking for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form 1051a duly signed and verified by such accountant.

 (5) The provisions of sub-sections (6) and (7) of section 80HH shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the computation of the profits and gains of a small-scale industrial undertaking for the purposes of the deduction under this section as they apply in relation to the computation of the profits and gains of an industrial undertaking for the purposes of the deduction under that section.

(6) In a case where the assessee is entitled also to the deduction under section 80-I or section 80J in relation to the profits and gains of a small-scale industrial undertaking to which this section applies, effect shall first be given to the provisions of this section.

(7) Where a deduction in relation to the profits and gains of a small” scale industrial undertaking to which section 80HH applies is claimed and allowed under that section for any assessment year, deduction in relation to such profits and gains shall not be allowed under this section for the same or any other assessment year.

(8) Nothing contained in this section shall apply in relation to any small-scale industrial undertaking engaged in mining.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Rural area” means any area other than - (i) An area which is comprised within the jurisdiction of a municipality (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee, town committee or by any other name) or a cantonment board and which has a population of not less than ten thousand according to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year; or

(ii) An area within such distance, not being more than fifteen kilometres from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in sub-clause (i), as the Central Government may, having regard to the stage of development of such area (including the extent of, and scope for, urbanisation of such area) and other relevant considerations, specify in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette;

(b) An industrial undertaking shall be deemed to be a small-scale industrial undertaking which is, on the last day of the previous year, regarded as a small-scale industrial undertaking under section 11B of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (65 of 1951).

Section 80HHB- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM PROJECTS OUTSIDE INDIA.

 (1) Where the gross total income of an assessee being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) who is resident in India includes any profits and gains derived from the business of - (a) The execution of a foreign project undertaken by the assessee in pursuance of a contract entered into by him, or

(b) The execution of any work undertaken by him and forming part of a foreign project undertaken by any other person in pursuance of a contract entered into by such other person, with the Government of a foreign State or any statutory or other public authority or agency in a foreign State, or a foreign enterprise, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to fifty per cent thereof :

Provided that the consideration for the execution of such project or, as the case may be, of such work is payable in convertible foreign exchange.

(2) For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Convertible foreign exchange” 1057a means foreign exchange which is for the time being treated by the Reserve Bank of India as convertible foreign exchange for the purposes of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973), and any rules made thereunder;

 (b) “Foreign project” means a project for - (i) The construction of any building, road, dam, bridge or other structure outside India;

 (ii) The assembly or installation of any machinery or plant outside India;

(iii) The execution of such other work (of whatever nature) as may be prescribed.

 (3) The deduction under this section shall be allowed only if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The assessee maintains separate accounts in respect of the profits and gains derived from the business of the execution of the foreign project, or, as the case may be, of the work forming part of the foreign project undertaken by him and, where the assessee is a person other than an Indian company or a co-operative society, such accounts have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form 1058 duly signed and verified by such accountant;

(ia) The assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, a certificate in the prescribed form from an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, duly signed and verified by such accountant, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed in accordance with the provisions of this section (ii) an amount equal to fifty per cent of the profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1) is debited to the profit and loss account of the previous year in respect of which the deduction under this section is to be allowed and credited to a reserve account (to be called the “Foreign Projects Reserve Account”) to be utilised by the assessee during a period of five years next following for the purposes of his business other than for distribution by way of dividends or profits;

 (iii) An amount equal to fifty per cent of the profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1) is brought by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange into India, in accordance with the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973), and any rules made thereunder, within a period of six months from the end of the previous year referred to in clause (ii) or, within such further period as the competent authority may allow in this behalf.

Section 80HHBA- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM HOUSING PROJECTS IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) who is a resident in India includes any profits and gains derived from the execution of a housing project awarded to the assessee on the basis of global tender and such project is aided by the World Bank, their shall, in accordance with the subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to fifty per cent thereof.

 (2) The deductions under this section shall be allowed only if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The assessee maintains separate account in respect of the profits and gains derived from the business of the execution of the housing project undertaken by him and, where the assessee is a person other than an Indian company or a co-operative society, such accounts have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes along with his return of income the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant;

(ii) An amount equal to fifty per cent of the profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1) is debited to the profits and loss account of the previous year in respect of which the deduction under this section is to be allowed and credited to a reserve account (to be called the Housing Projects Reserve Account) to be utilised by the assessee during a period of five years next following for the purposes of his business other than for distribution by way of dividends or profit :

Provided that where the amount credited by the assessee to the Housing Projects Reserve Account in pursuance of clause (ii) is less than fifty per cent of the profits and gains referred to in sub-section (1), the deduction under this section shall be limited to the amount so credited in pursuance of clause (ii).

(3) If at any time before the expiry of five years from the end of the previous year in which the deduction under sub-section (1) is allowed, the assessee utilises the amount credited to the Housing Projects Reserve Account for distribution by way of dividends or profit or for any other purpose which is not a purpose of the business of the assessee, the deduction originally allowed under sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been wrongly allowed and the Assessing Officer may, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, recompute the total income of the assessee for the relevant previous year and make necessary amendment and the provision of section 154 shall, so far as may be, apply thereto, the period of four years specified in sub-section (7) of that section being reckoned from the end of the previous year in which the money was so utilised. (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Chapter under heading “C. – Deduction in respect of certain incomes”, no part of the income payable to the assessee for the execution of a housing project under sub-section (1) shall qualify for deduction for any assessment year under any other provision.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Housing project” means a project for - (i) The construction of any building, road, bridge or other structure in any part of India;

 (ii) The execution of such other work (of whatever nature) as may be prescribed;

(b) “World Bank” means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Bank referred to in the International Monetary Fund and Bank Act, 1945

Section 80HHC- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS RETAINED FOR EXPORT BUSINESS.

(1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) resident in India, is engaged in the business of export out of India of any goods or merchandise to which this section applies, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction of the profits derived by the assessee from the export of such goods or merchandise :

Provided that if the assessee, being a holder of an Export House Certificate or a Trading House Certificate (hereafter in this section referred to as an Export House or a Trading House, as the case may be,) issues a certificate referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (4A), that in respect of the amount of the export turnover specified therein, the deduction under this sub-section is to be allowed to a supporting manufacturer, then the amount of deduction in the case of the assessee shall be reduced by such amount which bears to the total profits derived by the assessee from the export of trading goods, the same proportion as the amount of export turnover specified in the said certificate bears to the total export turnover of the assessee in respect of such trading goods.

(1A) Where the assessee, being a supporting manufacturer, has, during the previous year, sold goods or merchandise to any Export House or Trading House in respect of which the Export House or Trading House has issued a certificate under the proviso to sub-section (1), there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction of the profits derived by the assessee from the sale of goods or merchandise to the Export House or Trading House in respect of which the certificate has been issued by the Export House or Trading House.

 (2)(a) This section applies to all goods or merchandise, other than those specified in clause (b), if the sale proceeds of such goods or merchandise exported out of India are received in, or brought into India by the assessee (other than the supporting manufacturer) in convertible foreign exchange within a period of six months from the end of the previous year or, within such further period as the competent authority may allow in this behalf

 Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, the expression “competent authority” means the Reserve Bank of India or such other authority as is authorised under any law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange.

 (b) This section does not apply to the following goods or merchandise, namely :- (i) Mineral oil; and

 ii) Minerals and ores (other than processed minerals and ores specified 1069b in the Twelfth Schedule).

 Explanation 1 : The sale proceeds referred to in clause (a) shall be deemed to have been received in India where such sale proceeds are credited to a separate account maintained for the purpose by the assessee with any bank outside India with the approval of the Reserve Bank of India.

 Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where any goods or merchandise are transferred by an assessee to a branch, office, warehouse or any other establishment of the assessee situate outside India and such goods or merchandise are sold from such branch, office, warehouse or establishment, then, such transfer shall be deemed to be export out of India of such goods and merchandise and the value of such goods or merchandise declared in the shipping bill or bill of export as referred to in sub-section (1) of section 50 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be the sale proceeds thereof.

 (3) For the purposes of sub-section (1), - (a) Where the export out of India is of goods or merchandise manufactured or processed by the assessee, the profits derived from such export shall be the amount which bears to the profits of the business, the same proportion as the export turnover in respect of such goods bears to the total turnover of the business carried on by the assessee;

(b) Where the export out of India is of trading goods, the profits derived from such export shall be the export turnover in respect of such trading goods as reduced by the direct costs and indirect costs attributable to such export;

(c) Where the export out of India is of goods or merchandise manufactured or processed by the assessee and of trading goods, the profits derived from such export shall, – (i) In respect of the goods or merchandise manufactured or processed by the assessee, be the amount which bears to the adjusted profits of the business, the same proportion as the adjusted export turnover in respect of such goods bears to the adjusted total turnover of the business carried on by the assessee; and

(ii) In respect of trading goods, be the export turnover in respect of such

trading goods as reduced by the direct and indirect costs attributable to export of such trading goods :

 Provided that the profits computed under clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c) of this sub-section shall be further increased by the amount which bears to ninety per cent of any sum referred to in clause (iiia) (not being profits on sale of a licence acquired from any other person), and clauses (iiib) and (iiic), of section 28, the same proportion as the export turnover bears to the total turnover of business carried on by the assessee.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, - (a) “Adjusted export turnover” means the export turnover as reduced by the export turnover in respect of trading goods;

 (b) “Adjusted profits of the business” means the profits of the business as reduced by the profits derived from the business of export out of India of trading goods as computed in the manner provided in clause (b) of sub-section (3);

(c) “Adjusted total turnover” means the total turnover of the business as reduced by the export turnover in respect of trading goods;

 (d) “Direct costs” means costs directly attributable to the trading goods exported out of India including the purchase price of such goods;

(e) “Indirect costs” means costs, not being direct costs, allocated in the ratio of the export turnover in respect of trading goods to the total turnover;

(f) “Trading goods” means goods which are not manufactured or processed by the assessee.

 (3A) For the purposes of sub-section (1A), profits derived by a supporting manufacturer from the sale of goods or merchandise shall be, - (a) In a case where the business carried on by the supporting manufacturer consists exclusively of sale of goods or merchandise to one or more Export Houses or Trading Houses, the profits of the business;

 (b) In a case where the business carried on by the supporting manufacturer does not consist exclusively of sale of goods or merchandise to one or more Export Houses or Trading Houses, the amount which bears to the profits of the business the same proportion as the turnover in respect of sale to the respective Export House or Trading House bears to the total turnover of the business carried on by the assessee.

 (4) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the assessee furnishes in the prescribed form 1073 , along with the return of income, the report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed [ 1074 in accordance with the provisions of this section.

 (4A) The deduction under sub-section (1A) shall not be admissible unless the supporting manufacturer furnishes in the prescribed form along with his return of income, – (a) The report 1076 of an accountant, as defined in the

Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed on the basis of the profits of the supporting manufacturer in respect of his sale of goods or merchandise to the Export House or Trading House; and

(b) A certificate 1078 from the Export House or Trading House containing such particulars as may be prescribed and verified in the manner prescribed that in respect of the export turnover mentioned in the certificate, the Export House or Trading House has not claimed the deduction under this section :

 Provided that the certificate specified in clause (b) shall be duly certified by the auditor auditing the accounts of the Export House or Trading House under the provisions of this Act or under any other law.

(4B) For the purpose of computing the total income under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A), any income not charged to tax under this Act shall be excluded.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Convertible foreign exchange” means foreign exchange which is for the time being treated by the Reserve Bank of India as convertible foreign exchange for the purposes of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973), and any rules made thereunder;

(aa) “Export out of India” shall not include any transaction by way of sale or otherwise, in a shop, emporium or any other establishment situate in India, not involving clearance at any customs station as defined in the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962);

(b) “Export turnover” means the sale proceeds received in, or brought into, India by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange in accordance with clause (a) of sub-section (2) of any goods or merchandise to which this section applies and which are exported out of India, but does not include freight or insurance attributable to the transport of the goods or merchandise beyond the customs station as defined in the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962);

(ba) “Total turnover” shall not include freight or insurance attributable to the transport of the goods or merchandise beyond the customs station as defined in the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962) :

 Provided that in relation to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1991, the expression “total turnover” shall have effect as if it also excluded any sum referred to in clauses (iiia), (iiib) and (iiic) of section 28;

(baa) “Profits of the business” means the profits of the business as computed under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” as reduced by - (1) Ninety per cent of any sum referred to in clauses (iiia), (iiib) and (iiic) of section 28 or of any receipts by way of brokerage, commission, interest, rent, charges or any other receipt of a similar nature included in such profits; and

(2) The profits of any branch, office, warehouse or any other establishment of the assessee situate outside India;

(c) “Export House Certificate” or “Trading House Certificate” means a valid Export House Certificate or Trading House Certificate, as the case may be, issued by the Chief Controller of Imports and Exports, Government of India;

 (d) “Supporting manufacturer” means a person being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) resident in India, manufacturing including processing, goods or merchandise and selling such goods or merchandise to an Export House or a Trading House for the purposes of export.

Section 80HHD- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF EARNINGS IN CONVERTIBLE FOREIGN EXCHANGE.

(1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) resident in India, is engaged in the business of a hotel, or of a tour operator, approved by the prescribed authority in this behalf, or of a travel agent, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction of a sum equal to the aggregate of - (a) Fifty per cent of the profits derived by him from services provided to foreign tourists; and (b) so much of the amount out of the remaining profits referred to in clause (a) as is debited to the profit and loss account of the previous year in respect of which the deduction is to be allowed and credited to a reserve account to be utilised for the purposes of the business of the assessee in the manner laid down in sub-section (4) :

Provided that a hotel or, as the case may be, a tour operator approved by the prescribed authority on or after the 30th day of November, 1989 and before the 1st day of October, 1991, shall be deemed to have been approved by the prescribed authority for the purposes of this section in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1989 or the 1st day of April, 1990 or, as the case may be, the 1st day of April, 1991, if the assessee was engaged in the business of such hotel or as such tour operator during the previous year relevant to any of the said assessment years.

 (2) This section applies only to services provided to foreign tourists the receipts in relation to which are received in, or brought into, India by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange within a period of six months from the end of the previous year or, within such further period as the competent authority may allow in this behalf.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of this sub-section, any payment received by an assessee, engaged in the business of a hotel or of a tour operator or of a travel agent, in Indian currency obtained by conversion of foreign exchange brought into India through an authorised dealer, from another hotelier, tour operator or travel agent, as the case may be, on behalf of a foreign tourist or group of foreign tourists, shall be deemed to have been received by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange if the person making the payment furnishes to the assessee a certificate specified in sub-section (2A).

Explnation 2 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “competant authority” means the Reserve Bank of India or such other authority as is authorised under any law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange.

(2A) Every person making payment to an assessee referred to in the Explanation 1 to sub-section (2) out of Indian currency obtained by conversion of foreign exchange received from or on behalf of a foreign tourist or a group of foreign tourists shall furnish to that assessee a certificate in the prescribed form indicating the amount received in foreign exchange, its conversion into Indian currency and such other particulars as may be prescribed.

 (3) For the purposes of sub-section (1), profits derived from services

provided to foreign tourists shall be the amount which bears to the profits of the business (as computed under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”) the same proportion as the receipts specified in sub-section (2) as reduced by any payment, referred to in sub-section (2A), made by the assessee bear to the total receipts of the business carried on by the assessee.

 (4) The amount credited to the reserve account under clause (b) of sub-section (1), shall be utilised by the assessee before the expiry of a period of five years next following the previous year in which the amount was credited for the following purposes, namely :-

 (a) Construction of new hotels approved by the prescribed authority in this behalf or expansion of facilities in existing hotels already so approved;

(b) Purchase of new cars and new coaches by tour operators already so approved or by travel agents;

(c) Purchase of sports equipment for mountaineering, trekking, golf, river-rafting and other sports in or on water;

 (d) Construction of conference or convention centres;

(e) Provision of such new facilities for the growth of Indian tourism as the

Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf :

 (f) Subscription to equiry shares forming part of any eligible issue of capital made by a public company :

Provided that where any of the activities referred to in clauses (a) to (e) would result in creation of any asset owned by the assessee outside India, such asset should be created only after obtaining prior approval of the prescribed authority.

 (5) Where any amount credited to the reserve account under clause (b) of sub-section (1), - (a) Has been utilised for any purpose other than those referred to in sub-section (4), the amount so utilised; or

(b) Has not been utilised in the manner specified in sub-section (4), the amount not so utilised, shall be deemed to be the profits, - (i) In a case referred to in clause (a), in the year in which the amount was so utilised; or

(ii) In a case referred to in clause (b), in the year immediately following the period of five years specified in sub-section (4), and shall be charged to tax accordingly.

(5A) Where any amount credited to the reserve account under clause (b) of sub-section (1) has been utilised for subscription to any equity shares referred to in clause (f) of sub-section (4) and either whole or any part of such equity shares are transferred or converted into money by the assessee at any time within a period of three years from the date of their acquisition, the aggregate amount so utilised in respect of such equity shares shall be deemed to be the profits of the previous year in which the equity shares are transferred or converted into money.

Explanation : A person shall be treated as having acquired any shares on the date on which his name is entered in relation to those shares in the register of members of the public company.

(6) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the assessee furnishes in the prescribed form 1087 , along with the return of income, the report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed on the basis of the amount of convertible foreign exchange received by the assessee for services provided by him to the foreign tourists, payments made by him to any assessee referred to in sub-section (2A) and the payments received by him in Indian currency as referred to in the Explanation 1 to sub-section (2).

(7) Where a deduction under sub-section (1) is claimed and allowed in respect of profits derived from the business of a hotel, such part of profits shall not qualify to that extent for deduction for any assessment year under any other provisions of this Chapter under the heading “C. – Deductions in respect of certain incomes”, and shall in no case exceed the profits and gains of such hotel.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Travel agent” means a travel agent or other person (not being an airline or a shipping company) who holds a valid licence granted by the Reserve Bank of India under section 32 of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973);

(b) “Convertible foreign exchange” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (a) of the Explanation to section 80HHC;

(c) “Services provided to foreign tourists” shall not include services by way of sale in any shop owned or managed by the person who carries on the business of a hotel or of a tour operator or of a travel agent;

 (d) “Authorised dealer”, “foreign exchange” and “Indian currency” shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in clauses (b), (h) and (k) of section 2 of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973).

 (e) “Eligible issue of capital” means an issue made by a public company formed and registered in India and the entire proceeds of the issue is utilised wholly and exclusively for the purpose of carrying on the business of -

 (i) Wetting up and running of new hotels approved by the prescribed authority; or

 (ii) Providing such new facility for the growth of tourism in India, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

Section 80HHE-DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS FROM EXPORT OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE, ETC.

(1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company or a person (other than a company) resident in India, is engaged in the business of, - (i) Export out of India of computer software or its transmission from India to a place outside India by any means;

 (ii) Providing technical services outside India in connection with the development or production of computer software, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction of the profits derived by the assessee from such business :

Provided that if the assessee, being a company engaged in the export out of India of computer software issues a certificate referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (4A), that in respect of the amount of the export specified therein, the deduction under this sub-section is to be allowed to a supporting software developer, then the amount of deduction in the case of an assessee shall be reduced by such amount which bears to the total profits derived by the assessee from the export the same proportion as the amount of the export turnover specified in such certificate bears to the total export turnover of the assessee.

 (1A) Where the assessee, being a supporting software developer, has during the previous year, developed and sold computer software to an exporting company in respect of which the said company has issued a certificate under the proviso to sub-section (1) there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed in computing the total income of the assessee a deduction of the profits derived by the assessee from the developing and selling of computer software to the exporting company in respect of which the certificate has been issued by the said company.

(2) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) shall be allowed only if the consideration in respect of the computer software referred to in that sub-section is received in, or brought into, India by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange, within a period of six months from the end of the previous year or, within such further period as the competent authority may allow in this behalf.

Explanation 1 : The said consideration shall be deemed to have been received in India where it is credited to a separate account maintained for the purpose by the assessee with any bank outside India with the approval of the Reserve Bank of India.

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “competent authority” means the Reserve Bank of India or such other authority as is authorised under any law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange.

(3) For the purposes of sub-section (1), profits derived from the business referred to in that sub-section shall be the amount which bears to the profits of the business, the same proportion as the export turnover bears to the total turnover of the business carried on by the assessee.

(3A) For the purposes of sub-section (1A), profits derived by a supporting software developer shall be, - (i) In case where the business carried on by the supporting software developer consists exclusively of developing and selling of computer software to one or more exporting companies solely engaged in exports, the profits of such business;

 (ii) In a case where the business carried on by a supporting software developer does not consist exclusively of developing and selling of computer software to one or more exporting companies, the amount which bears to the profits of the business, the same proportion as the turnover in respect of sale to the respective exporting company bears to the total turnover of the business carried on by the assessee.

(4) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the assessee furnishes in the prescribed form 1087g , along with the return of income, the report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(4A) The deduction under sub-section (1A) shall not be admissible unless the supporting software developer furnishes in the prescribed form along with his return of income, - (i) The report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed on the basis of the profits of the supporting software developer in respect of sale of computer software export to the exporting company; and

(ii) A certificate from the exporting company containing such particulars as may be prescribed and verified in the manner prescribed that in respect of the export turnover mentioned in the certificate, in exporting company has not claimed deduction under this section :

Provided that the certificate specified in clause (b) shall be duly certified by the auditor auditing the accounts of the exporting assessee under the provisions of this Act or under any other law.

(5) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed in respect of profits of the business referred to in sub-section (1) for any assessment year, no deduction shall be allowed in relation to such profits under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Convertible foreign exchange” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (a) of the Explanation to section 80HHC;

 (b) “Computer software” means any computer programme recorded on any disc, tape, perforated media or other information storage device and includes any such programme or any customised electronic data which is transmitted from India to a place outside India by any means;

 (c) “Export turnover” means the consideration in respect of computer software received in, or brought into, India by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange in accordance with sub-section (2), but does not include freight, telecommunication charges or insurance attributable to the delivery of the computer software outside India or expenses, if any, incurred in foreign exchange in providing the technical services outside India;

(ca) “Exporting company” means a company referred to in sub-section (1) making actual export of computer software;

 (d) “Profits of the business” means the profits of the business as computed under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” as reduced by -

 (1) Ninety per cent of any receipts by way of brokerage, commission, interest, rent, charges or any other receipt of a similar nature included in such profits; and

 (2) The profits of any branch, office, warehouse or any other establishment of the assessee situate outside India;

(e) “Total turnover” shall not include - (i) Any sum referred to in clauses (iiia), (iiib) and (iiic) of section 28;

 (ii) Any freight, telecommunication charges or insurance attributable to the delivery of the computer software outside India; and

(iii) Expenses, if any, incurred in foreign exchange in providing the technical services outside India.

(ea) “Supporting software developer” means an Indian company or a person (other than a company) resident in India, developing and selling computer software to an exporting company for the purposes of export.

Section 80HHF- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM EXPORT OR TRANSFER OF FILM SOFTWARE, ETC.

(1) Where an assessee, being an Indian company, is engaged in the business of export or transfer by any means out of India, of any film software, television software, music software, television news software, including telecast rights (hereafter in this section referred to as the software or software rights), there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction of the profits derived by the assessee from such business.

 (2) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) shall be allowed only if the consideration in respect of the software or software rights referred to in that sub-section is received in, or brought into, India by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange, within a period of six months from the end of the previous year or within such further period as the competent authority may allow in this behalf.

(3) For the purposes of sub-section (1), profits derived from the business referred to in that sub-section shall be the amount which bears to the profits of the business, the same proportion as the export turnover bears to the total turnover of the business carried on by the assessee.

(4) The deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible unless the assessee furnishes in the prescribed form, along with the return of income, the report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(5) Where a deduction under this section is claimed and allowed in respect of profits of the business referred to in sub-section (1) for any assessment year, no deduction shall be allowed in relation to such profits under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year.

 (6) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, no deduction shall be allowed in respect of the software or software rights referred to in sub-section (1), if such business is prohibited by any law for the time being in force.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Competent authority” means the Reserve Bank of India or such other authority as is authorised under any law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange;

 (b) “Convertible foreign exchange” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (a) of the Explanation to section 80HHC;

 (c) “Export turnover” means the consideration in respect of the software or software rights specified in clauses (d), (e), (g), (h) and (i), received in, or brought into, India by the assessee in convertible foreign exchange in accordance with sub-section (2), but does not include freight, telecommunication charges or insurance attributable to the delivery of such software outside India or expenses, if any, incurred in foreign exchange in providing the technical services outside India;

 (d) “Film software” means a copy of a cinematograph film made by any process analogous to cinematography on acetate polyester or celluloid film positive, magnetic tape, digital media or other optical or magnetic devices and certified by the Board of film certification constituted by the Central Government under section 3 of the Cinematograph Act, 1952 (37 of 1952);

 (e) “Music software” includes series of sounds or music recorded on magnetic tape, cassette, compact discs and digital media which can be played or reproduced on any appropriate apparatus;

 (f) “Profits of the business” means the profits of the business as computed

under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” as reduced by- (A) ninety per cent of any receipts by way of brokerage, commission, interest, rent, charges or any other receipt of a similar nature included in such profits; and

 (B) The profits of any branch, office, warehouse or any other establishment of the assessee situated outside India;

 (g) “Telecast rights” means a licence or contract to exhibit motion pictures or television programmes over a television network either through terrestrial transmission or through a satellite broadcast in a specified territory;

 (h) “Television news software” means a collection of sounds and images, reportage, data and voice of actualities broadcast either through terrestrial transmission, wire or satellite, live or pre- recorded on video cassettes or digital media;

 (i) “Television software” means any programme or series of sounds and images recorded on film or tape or digital media or broadcast through terrestrial transmitter, satellite or any other means of diffusion;

(j) “Total turnover” shall not include - (A) Any sum referred to in clauses (iiia), (iiib) and (iiic) of section 28;

 (B) Any freight, telecommunication charges or insurance attributable to the delivery of the film software, music software, telecast rights, television news software, or television software as defined in clause (d), (e), (g), (h) or (i), as the case may be, outside India;

 (C) Expenses, if any, incurred in foreign exchange in providing the technical services outside India.

 Section 80-I- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS AFTER A CERTAIN DATE, ETC.

 (1) Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking or a ship or the business of a hotel or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft to which this section applies, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to twenty per cent thereof :

Provided that in the case of an assessee, being a company the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect in relation to profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking or a ship or the business of a hotel as if for the words “twenty per cent” the words “twenty-five per cent” had been substituted.

(1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), in relation to any profits and gains derived by an assessee from – (i) An industrial undertaking which begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants; or

(ii) A ship which is first brought into use; or

(iii) The business of a hotel which starts functioning, on or after the 1st day of April, 1990, but before the 1st day of April, 1991, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to twenty-five per cent thereof :

 Provided that in the case of an assessee, being a company, the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect in relation to profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking or a ship or the business of a hotel as if for the words “twenty-five per cent”, the words “thirty per cent” had been substituted.

 (2) This section applies to any industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) It is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence;

(ii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

(iii) It manufactures or produces any article or thing, not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule, or operates one or more cold storage plant, or plants in any part of India, and begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate such plant or plants, at any time within the period of ten years next following the 31st day of March, 1981, or such further period as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify with reference to any particular industrial undertaking;

(iv) In a case where the industrial undertaking manufactures or produces articles or things, the undertaking employs ten or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on with the aid of power, or employs twenty or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on without the aid of power:

Provided that the condition in clause (i) shall not apply in respect of any industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section :

 Provided further that the conditions in clause (iii) shall, in relation to a small-scale industrial undertaking, apply as if the words “not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule” had been omitted.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section, any machinery or plant which was used outside India by any person other than the assessee shall not be regarded as machinery or plant previously used for any purpose, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of the installation by the assessee, used in India;

 (b) Such machinery or plant is imported into India from any country outside India; and

 (c) No deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee.

 Explanation 2 : Where in the case of an industrial undertaking, any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose is transferred to a new business and the total value of the machinery or plant or part so transferred does not exceed twenty per cent. of the total value of the machinery or plant used in the business, then, for the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been complied with.

Explanation 3 : For the purposes of this sub-section, “small-scale industrial undertaking” shall have the same meaning as in clause (b) of the Explanation below sub-section (8) of section 80HHA.

(3) This section applies to any ship, where all the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) It is owned by an Indian company and is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by it;

(ii) It was not, previous to the date of its acquisition by the Indian company, owned or used in Indian territorial waters by a person resident in India; and

 (iii) It is brought into use by the Indian company at any time within the period of ten years next following the 1st day of April, 1981.

 (4) This section applies to the business of any hotel, where all the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The business of the hotel is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction of a business already in existence or by the transfer to a new business of a building previously used as a hotel or of any machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

 (ii) The business of the hotel is owned and carried on by a company registered in India with a paid-up capital of not less than five hundred thousand rupees;

 (iii) The hotel is for the time being approved for the purposes of this sub-section by the Central Government;

 (iv) The business of the hotel starts functioning after the 31st day of March, 1981 but [ 1094 before the 1st day of April, 1991.

(4A) This section applies to the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) The business is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence;

 (ii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

(iii) It is carried on by an Indian company and the work by way of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft has been commenced by such company after the 31st day of March, 1983 but before the 1st day of April, 1988; and

 (iv) It is for the time being approved for the purposes of this sub-section by the Central Government.

(5) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) shall be allowed in computing the total income in respect of the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants or the ship is first brought into use or the business of the hotel starts functioning or the company commences work by way of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft (such assessment year being hereafter in this section referred to as the initial assessment year) and each of the seven assessment years immediately succeeding the initial assessment year :

Provided that in the case of an assessee, being a co-operative society, the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “seven assessment years”, the words “nine assessment years” had been substituted :

Provided further that in the case of an assessee carrying on the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft, the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “seven assessment years”, the words “four assessment years” had been substituted :

Provided also that in the case of - (i) An industrial undertaking which begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants; or

(ii) A ship which is first brought into use; or

(iii) The business of a hotel which starts functioning, on or after the 1st day of April, 1990 but before the 1st day of April, 1991, provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “seven assessment years”, the words “nine assessment years” had been substituted :

Provided also that in the case of an assessee, being a co-operative society, deriving profits and gains from an industrial undertaking or a ship or a hotel referred to in the third proviso, the provisions of that proviso shall have effect as if for the words “nine assessment years”, the words “eleven assessment years” had been substituted.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, the profits and gains of an industrial undertaking or a ship or the business of a hotel or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft to which the provisions of sub-section (1) apply shall, for the purposes of determining the quantum of deduction under sub-section (1) for the assessment year immediately succeeding the initial assessment year or any subsequent assessment year, be computed as if such industrial undertaking or ship or the business of the hotel or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft were the only source of income of the assessee during the previous years relevant to the initial assessment year and to every subsequent assessment year upto and including the assessment year for which the determination is to be made.

(7) Where the assessee is a person other than a company or a co-operative society, the deduction under sub-section (1) from profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking shall not be admissible unless the accounts of the industrial undertaking for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form 1098 duly signed and verified by such accountant.

(8) Where any goods held for the purposes of the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel or the operation of the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft are transferred to any other business carried on by the assessee, or where any goods held for the purposes of any other business carried on by the assessee are transferred to the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel or the operation of the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft and, in either case the consideration, if any, for such transfer as recorded in the accounts of the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel or the operation of the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft does not correspond to the market value of such goods as on the date of the transfer, then, for the purposes of the deduction under this section, the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking or the business of the hotel or the operation of the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft shall be computed as if the transfer, in either case, had been made at the market value of such goods as on that date :

Provided that where, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, the computation of the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking or the business of the hotel or operation of the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft in the manner hereinbefore specified presents exceptional difficulties, the Assessing Officer may compute such profits and gains on such reasonable basis as he may deem fit.

 Explanation : In this sub-section, “market value”, in relation to any goods means the price that such goods would ordinarily fetch on sale in the open market.

(9) Where it appears to the Assessing Officer that, owing to the close connection between the assessee carrying on the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel or the operation of the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft to which this section applies and any other person, or for any other reason, the course of business between them is so arranged that the business transacted between them produces to the assessee more than the ordinary profits which might be expected to arise in the business of the industrial undertaking or the hotel or the operation of the ship, or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft the Assessing Officer shall, in computing the profits and gains of the industrial undertaking or the hotel or the ship or the business of repairs to ocean-going vessels or other powered craft for the purposes of the deduction under this section, take the amount of profits as may be reasonably deemed to have been derived therefrom.

(10) The Central Government may, after making such inquiry as it may

think fit, direct, by notification in the Official Gazette, that the exemption conferred by this section shall not apply to any class of industrial undertakings with effect from such date as it may specify in the notification.

Section 80-IA- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS, ETC., IN CERTAIN CASES.

(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived from any business of an industrial undertaking or a hotel or operation of a ship or developing, maintaining and operating any infrastructure facility or scientific and industrial research and developmentor providing telecommunication services whether basic or cellularor operating an industrial park or commercial production or refining of mineral oil in the North Eastern Regionor in any part of India on or after the 1st day of April, 1997 (such business being hereinafter referred to as the eligible business) to which this section applies, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to the percentage specified in sub-section (5) and for such number of assessment years as is specified in sub-section (6).

 (2) This section applies to any industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) It is not formed by splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence :

 Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of an industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

(ii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

(iii) It manufactures or produces any article or thing, not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule, or operates one or more cold storage plant or plants, in any part of India :

Provided that the condition in this clause shall, in relation to a small-scale industrial undertaking, or an industrial undertaking referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (iv) which begins to manufacture or produce an article or thing during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1993 and ending on 31st day of March, 1998 apply as if the words “not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule” had been omitted;

(iv)(a) In the case of an industrial undertaking not specified in sub-clause (b), or sub-clause (c), it begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate such plant or plants, at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1991 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1995, or such further period as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify with reference to any particular industrial undertaking;

 (b) In the case of an industrial undertaking located in an industrially backward State specified in the Eighth Schedule or set up in any part of India for the generation, or generation and distribution, of power, it begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants or to generate power at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1993 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000.

Provided that in the case of an industrial undertaking set up in any part of India for the generation or generation and distribution, of power, the period ending shall have effect as if for the figures ’1998′, the figures 2003 had been substituted.

(c) In the case of an industrial undertaking located in such industrially backward district as the Central Government may, having regard to the prescribed guidelines, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, as industrially backward district of Category ‘A’ or industrially backward district of Category ‘B’ and it begins to manufacture or produce articles or thing or to operate its cold storage plant or plants at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of October, 1994 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000

 (d) In the case of an industrial undertaking being a small scale industrial undertaking, not specified in sub-clause (b) or in sub-clause (c), it begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1995 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000;

 (v) In a case where the industrial undertaking manufactures or produces articles or things, the undertaking employs ten or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on with the aid of power, or employs twenty or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on without the aid of power.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section, any machinery or plant which was used outside India by any person other than the assessee shall not be regarded as machinery or plant previously used for any purpose, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) Such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of the installation by the assessee, used in India;

 (b) Such machinery or plant is imported into India from any country outside India; and

 (c) No deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee.

 Explanation 2 : Where in the case of an industrial undertaking, any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose is transferred to a new business and the total value of the machinery or plant or part so transferred does not exceed twenty per cent. of the total value of the machinery or plant used in the business, then, for the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(3) This section applies to any ship, where all the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (i) It is owned by an Indian company and is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by it;

 (ii) It was not, previous to the date of its acquisition by the Indian company, owned or used in Indian territorial waters by a person resident in India; and

(iii) It is brought into use by the Indian company at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1991 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1995.

 (4)This section applies to the business of any hotel – (a) Where conditions (i), (ii) and (v); and

 (b) Either of the conditions (iii) or (iv); or

 (c) Either of the conditions (iiia) or (iva), are fulfilled, namely :- (i) The business of the hotel is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence or by the transfer to a new business of a building previously used as a hotel or of any machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

(ii) The business of the hotel is owned and carried on by a company registered in India with a paid-up capital of not less than five hundred thousand rupees;

(iii) The business of the hotel, located in a hilly area or a rural area or a place of pilgrimage or such other place as the Central Government may having regard to the need for development of infra-structure for tourism in any place and other relevant considerations specify for the purpose of this clause, starts functioning at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1990 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1994;

(iiia) The business of the hotel, located in a hilly area or a rural area or a place of pilgrimage or such other place as the Central Government may, having regard to the need for development of infrastructure for tourism in any place and other relevant considerations, specify for the purpose of this clause, starts functioning at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1998, and ending on the 31st day of March, 2001 :

 Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to any hotel located at a place within the municipal jurisdiction (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee or a cantonment board or by any other name) of Calcutta, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai;

 (iv) The business of the hotel - (1) Located in any place, or

(2) Located in a place other than a place referred to in clause (iii) of this sub-section, starts functioning at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1991 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1995;

(iva) The business of the hotel, located in a place other than a place referred to in clause (iiia) of this sub-section and not being located at a place within the municipal jurisdiction (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee or a cantonment board or by any other name) of Calcutta, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai, starts functioning at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1997, and ending on the 31st day of March, 2001;

 (v) The hotel is for the time being approved by the prescribed authority

(4A) This section applies to any enterprise carrying on the business of developing, maintaining and operating any infrastructure facility which fulfills all the following conditions, namely :- (i) The enterprise is owned by a company registered in India or by a consortium of such companies;

 (ii) The enterprise has entered into an agreement with the Central Government or a State Government or a local authority or any other statutory body for developing, maintaining and operating a new infrastructure facility subject to the condition that such infrastructure facility shall be transferred to the Central Government, State Government, local authority or such other statutory body, as the case may be, within the period stipulated in the agreement;

(iii) The enterprise starts operating and maintaining the infrastructure facility on or after the 1st day of April, 1995 :

Provided that the provisions of this section shall apply in case of refining of mineral oil where the undertaking beings refining on or after the 1st day of October, 1998.

(4B) This section applies to any company registered in India carrying on scientific and industrial research and development which fulfills all the following conditions, namely :- (i) The company has the main object of scientific and industrial research and development;

(ii) The company is for the time being approved by the prescribed authority at any time before the 1st day of April, 1998.

(4C) This section applies to any undertaking which starts providing telecommunication services whether basic or cellular including radio paging, domestic satellite service or network of trunking and electronic data interchange services at any time on or after the 1st day of April, 1995, but before the 31st day of March, 2000.

(4D) This section applies to any undertaking which begins to operate an industrial park notified by the Central Government in accordance with the scheme framed and notified by that Government for the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1997, and ending on the 31st day of March, 2002.

 (4E) This section applies to any undertaking which begins commercial production or refining of mineral oil in the North Eastern Region or in any part of India on or after the 1st day of April, 1997.

Provided that the proviso of this section shall apply in case of refining of mineral oil where the undertaking begins refining on or after the 1st day of October, 1998.

 (4F) This section applies to an undertaking, engaged in developing and building housing projects approved by a local authority subject to the condition that the size of the plot of land has a minimum of one acre, and the residential unit has a built up area not exceeding one thousand square fee :

 Provided that the undertaking commences development and construction of the housing project on or after the 1st day of October, 1998 and completes the same before the 31st day of March, 2001.

 (5) The amount referred to in sub-section (1) shall be - (i)(a) In the case of an industrial undertaking referred to in sub-clause (a) or sub-clause (d) of clause (iv) of sub-section (2), twenty-five per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertakings;

 (b) In the case of an industrial undertaking referred to in sub-clause (b) or sub-clause (c) of clause (iv) of sub-section (2), hundred per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertaking for the initial five assessment years and thereafter twenty-five per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertaking :

 Provided that where the assessee is a company, the provisions of this clause shall have effect as if for the words “twenty-five per cent.”, the words “thirty per cent.” had been substituted :

Provided further that in case of an industrial undertaking located in an industrially backward district of Category ‘B’, the provisions of this clause shall have effect as if for the words “five assessment years”, the words three assessment years” had been substituted;

(ia) In the case of an enterprise referred to in sub-section (4A), hundred per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such business for the initial five assessment years and thereafter, thirty per cent. of such profits and gains;

(ib) In the case of a company referred to in sub-section (4B), hundred per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such business;

 (ic) In the case of an undertaking referred to in sub-section (4C), hundred per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such business for the initial five assessment years and thereafter, twenty-five per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such business :

Provided that where the assessee is a company, the provisions of this clause shall have effect as if for the words “twenty-five per cent.”, the words “thirty per cent.” had been substituted;

(id) In the case of an industrial park referred to in sub-section (4D), hundred per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such business for the initial five assessment years and thereafter, twenty-five per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such business :

Provided that where the assessee is a company, the provisions of this clause shall have effect as if for the words “twenty-five per cent.”, the words “thirty per cent.” had been substituted;

 (ii) In the case of a hotel referred to in clause (iii) of sub-section (4), fifty per cent. of the profits and gains derived from the business of such hotel :

Provided that the said hotel is approved by the prescribed authority for the purpose of this clause in accordance with the rules made under this Act :

Provided further that the said hotel approved by the prescribed authority before the 31st day of March, 1992, shall be deemed to have been approved by the prescribed authority for the purposes of this section in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1991;

(iia) In the case of a hotel referred to in clause (iiia) of sub-section (4), fifty per cent. of the profits and gains derived from the business of such hotel :

Provided that the said hotel is approved by the prescribed authority for the purposes of this clause in accordance with the rules made under this Act;

 (iii) In the case of a hotel referred to in clause (iv) or clause (iva) of sub-section (4), thirty per cent. of the profits and gains derived from the business of such hotel;

(iv) In the case of a ship, thirty per cent. of the profits and gains derived from such ship.

 (v) In the case of undertaking referred to in sub-section (4E) hundred per cent. of profits and gains derived from such business for the initial seven assessment years.

(vi) In the case of a housing project referred to in sub-section (4F), hundred per cent, of profits and gains derived from such business.

 (6) The number of assessment years referred to in sub-section (1) shall, including the initial assessment year, be - (i) Twelve in the case of an assessee, being a co-operative society, deriving profits and gains from an industrial undertaking;

(ii) Ten in the case of any assessee, not being a co-operative society, deriving profits and gains from an industrial undertaking specified in sub-clause (a) or sub-clause (b) or sub-clause (d) of clause (iv) of sub-section (2), or located in an industrially backward district of Category ‘A’ specified in sub-clause (c) of clause (iv) of that sub-section;

 (iia) Eight in the case of an assessee deriving profits and gains from an industrial undertaking located in an industrially backward district of Category ‘B’ specified in sub-clause (c) of clause (iv) of sub-section (2) and such an undertaking is not covered under clauses (i) and (ii) of this sub-section;’; 1100kg-1

(iii) Ten in the case of any other assessee deriving profits and gains, from a ship or the business of a hotel;

 (iv) Any ten consecutive assessment years falling within a period of twelve assessment years beginning with the assessment year in which an assessee begins operating and maintaining infrastructure facility :

Provided that where the assessee begins operating and maintaining any infrastructure facility referred to in sub-clause (ii) of clause (ca) of sub-section (12), the provisions of this clause shall have effect as if for the word “twelve”, the word “twenty” has been substituted.’;

 (v) Five in the case of an assessee, being a company referred to in sub-section (4B), deriving profits and gains from scientific and industrial research and development.

(vi) Ten in the case of an assessee, being an undertaking referred to in sub-section (4C), deriving profits and gains from telecommunication services whether basic or cellular including radio paging and domestic satellite service

(vii) Ten in the case of an assessee, being an undertaking referred to in sub-section (4D), deriving profits and gains from operating an industrial park;

(viii) Seven in the case of an assessee being an undertaking referred to in sub-section (4E) deriving profits and gains from commercial production or refining of mineral oil in the North Eastern Region and other parts of the country on or after the 1st day of April, 1997

 (7) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, the profits and gains of an eligible business to which the provisions of sub-section (1) apply shall, for the purposes of determining the quantum of deduction under sub-section (5) for the assessment year immediately succeeding the initial assessment year or any subsequent assessment year, be computed as if such eligible business were the only source of income of the assessee during the previous year relevant to the initial assessment year and to every subsequent assessment year up to and including the assessment year for which the determination is to be made.

(7A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (4A), where housing or other activities are an integral part of the highway project and the profits of which are computed on such basis and manner as may be prescribed, such profit shall not be liable to tax where the profit has been transferred to a special reserve account and the same is actually utilised for the highway project excluding housing and other activities before the expiry of three years following the year in which such amount was transferred to the reserve account; and the amount remaining unutilised shall be chargeable to tax as income of the year in which transfer to reserve account took place,’;

(8) Where the assessee is a person other than a company or a co-operative society, the deduction under sub-section (1) from profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking shall not be admissible unless the accounts of the industrial undertaking for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form 1100m duly signed and verified by such accountant.

(9) Where any goods held for the purposes of the eligible business are transferred to any other business carried on by the assessee, or where any goods held for the purposes of any other business carried on by the assessee are transferred to the eligible business and, in either case, the consideration, if any, for such transfer as recorded in the accounts of the eligible business does not correspond to the market value of such goods as on the date of the transfer, then, for the purposes of the deduction under this section, the profits and gains of such eligible business shall be computed as if the transfer, in either case, had been made at the market value of such goods as on that date :

Provided that where, in the opinion of the Assessing Officer, the computation of the profits and gains of the eligible business in the manner hereinbefore specified presents exceptional difficulties, the Assessing Officer may compute such profits and gains on such reasonable basis as he may deem fit.

 Explanation : In this sub-section, “market value”, in relation to any goods, means the price that such goods would ordinarily fetch on sale in the open market.

(9A) Where any amount of profits and gains of an industrial undertaking or of a hotel in the case of an assessee is claimed and allowed under this section for any assessment year, deduction to the extent of such profits and gains shall not be allowed under any other provisions of this Chapter under the heading “C. – Deductions in respect of certain incomes”. and shall in no case exceed the profits and gains of the undertaking or hotel, as the case may be.

(10) Where it appears to the Assessing Officer that, owing to the close connection between the assessee carrying on the eligible business to which this section applies and any other person, or for any other reason, the course of business between them is so arranged that the business transacted between them produces to the assessee more than the ordinary profits which might be expected to arise in such eligible business, the Assessing Officer shall, in computing the profits and gains of such eligible business for the purposes of the deduction under this section, take the amount of profits as may be reasonably deemed to have been derived therefrom.

(11) The Central Government may, after making such inquiry as it may think fit, direct, by notification in the Official Gazette, that the exemption conferred by this section shall not apply to any class of industrial undertakings with effect from such date as it may specify in the notification.

(12) For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Domestic satellite” means a satellite owned and operated by an Indian company for providing telecommunication service;

 (aa) “Hilly area” means any area located at a height of one thousand metres or more above the sea level;

(b) “Industrial undertaking” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to section 33B;

 (c) “Initial assessment year” - (1) In the case of an industrial undertaking or cold storage plant or ship or hotel, means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things, or to operate its cold storage, plant or plants or the ship is first brought into use or the business of the hotel starts functioning;

(2) In the case of an enterprise, carrying on the business of developing, operating and maintaining any infrastructure facility, means the assessment year specified by the assessee at his option to be the initial year, not falling beyond the twelfth assessment year starting from the previous year in which the enterprise begins operating and maintaining the infrastructure facility;

(3) In the case of a company carrying on scientific and industrial research and development, means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the company is approved by the prescribed authority for the purposes of sub-section (4B);

 (4) In the case of an undertaking referred to under sub-section (4C) means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the undertaking starts to provide the telecommunication services whether basic or cellular including radio paging and domestic satellite service.

 (5) In the case of undertaking operating an industrial park referred to under sub-section (4D) means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the undertaking starts operating such industrial park notified for the purposes of the said sub-section;

 (6) In the case of an undertaking engaged in the business of commercial production of mineral oil referred to in sub-section (4E) means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the undertaking commences the commercial production of mineral oil;

(ca) “Infrastructure facility” means -

(i) A road, bridge, highway, airport, port, inland waterways and inland waterways and inland portrail system or any other public facility of a similar nature as may be notified by the Board in this behalf in the Official Gazette;

(ii) A highway including housing or other activities being an integral part of the highway project; and

(iii) Water supply project, irrigation project, sanitation and sewerage system;

(d) “Place of pilgrimage” means a place where any temple, mosque, gurdwara, church or other place of public worship of renown throughout any State or States is situated;

 (e) “Rural area” means any area other than - (i) An area which is comprised within the jurisdiction of a municipality (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee or by any other name) or a cantonment board and which has a population of not less than ten thousand according to the preceding census of which relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year; or

(ii) An area within such distance not being more than fifteen kilometres from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in sub-clause (i), as the Central Government may, having regard to the stage of development of such area (including the extent of, and scope for, urbanisation of such area) and other relevant considerations specify in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette;

 (f) “Small-scale industrial undertaking” means an industrial undertaking which is, as on the last day of the previous year, regarded as a small-scale industrial undertaking under section 11B of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (65 of 1951);

 (g) “North Eastern Region” means the region comprising of the State of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura

Section 80-IB- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS OTHER THAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT UNDERTAKING. -

(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived from any business referred to in sub- sections (3) to (11) (such business being hereinafter referred to as the eligible business), there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction from such profits and gains of an amount equal to such percentage and for such number of assessment years as specified in this section.

 (2) This section applies to any industrial undertaking which fulfils all the following conditions, namely :- (i) It is not formed by splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence :

 Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of an industrial undertaking which is formed as a result of the re- establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such industrial undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

(ii) It is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

 (iii) It manufactures or produces any article or thing, not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule, or operates one or more cold storage plant or plants, in any part of India :

 Provided that the condition in this clause shall, in relation to a small scale industrial undertaking or an industrial undertaking referred to in sub-section (4) shall apply as if the words “not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule” had been omitted.

Explanation 1 : For the purposes of clause (ii), any machinery or plant which was used outside India by anyperson other than the assessee shall not be regarded as machinery or plant previously used for any purpose, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely :- (a) Such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of the installation by the assessee, used in India;

(b) Such machinery or plant is imported into India from any country outside India; and

 (c) No deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee.

 Explanation 2 : Where in the case of an industrial undertaking, any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose is transferred to a new business and the total value of the machinery or plant or part so transferred does not exceed twenty per cent of the total value of the machinery or plant used in the business, then, for the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been complied with;

(iv) In a case where the industrial undertaking manufactures or produces articles or things, the undertaking employs ten or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on with the aid of power, or employs twenty or more workers in a manufacturing process carried on without the aid of power.

 (3) The amount of deduction in the case of an industrial undertaking shall be twenty-five per cent (or thirty per cent. where the assessee is a company), of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertaking for a period of ten consecutive assessment years (or twelve consecutive assessment years where the assessee is a co- operative society) beginning with the initial assessment year subject to the fulfilment of the following conditions, namely :-

(i) It begins to manufacture or produce, articles or things or to operate such plant or plants at any time during the period beginning from the 1st day of April, 1991 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1995 or such further period as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify with reference to any particular undertaking;

(ii) Where it is an industrial undertaking being a small scale industrial undertaking, it begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant not specified in sub- section (4) or sub-section (5) at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1995 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000.

 (4) The amount of deduction in the case of an industrial undertaking in an industrially backward State specified in the Eighth Schedule shall be hundred per cent of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertaking for five assessment years beginning with the initial assessment year and thereafter twenty-five per cent (or thirty per cent where the assessee is a company) of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertaking :

Provided that the total period of deduction does not exceed ten consecutive assessment years (or twelve consecutive assessment years where the assessee is a co-operative society) subject to fulfilment of the condition that it begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1993 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000 :

 Provided further that in the case of such industries in the North- Eastern Region, as may be notified by the Central Government, the amount of deduction shall be hundred per cent of profits and gains for a period of ten assessment years, and the total period of deduction shall in such a case not exceed ten assessment years.

 (5) The amount of deduction in the case of an industrial undertaking located in such industrially backward districts as the Central Government may, having regard to the prescribed guidelines, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf as industrially backward district of category ‘A’ or an industrially backward district of category ‘B’ shall be, - (i) Hundred per cent of the profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking located in a backward district of category ‘A’ for five assessment years beginning with the initial assessment year and thereafter, twenty-five per cent (or thirty per cent. where the assessee is a company) of the profits and gains of an industrial undertaking :

 Provided that the total period of deduction shall not exceed ten consecutive assessment years or where the assessee is a co-operative society, twelve consecutive assessment years :

 Provided further that the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of October, 1994 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000;

 (ii) Hundred per cent of the profits and gains derived from an industrial undertaking located in a backward district of category ‘B’ for three assessment years beginning with the initial assessment year and thereafter, twenty-five per cent (or thirty per cent. where the assessee is a company) of the profits and gains of an industrial undertaking :

 Provided that the total period of deduction does not exceed eight consecutive assessment years (or where the assessee is a co-operative society, twelve consecutive assessment years):

 Provided further that the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things or to operate its cold storage plant or plants at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of October, 1994 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2000.

 (6) The amount of deduction in the case of the business of a ship shall be thirty per cent of the profits and gains derived from such ship for a period of ten consecutive assessment years including the initial assessment year provided that the ship- (i) Is owned by an Indian company and is wholly used for the purposes of the business carried on by it;

 (ii) Was not, previous to the date of its acquisition by the Indian company, owned or used in Indian territorial waters by a person resident in India; and

 (iii) Is brought into use by the Indian company at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1991 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1995.

 (7) The amount of deduction in the case of any hotel shall be- (a) Fifty per cent of the profits and gains derived from the business of such hotel for a period of ten consecutive years beginning from the initial assessment year as is located in a hilly area or a rural area or a place of pilgrimage or such other place as the Central Government may, having regard to the need for development of infrastructure for tourism in any place and other relevant considerations, specify by notification in the Official Gazette and such hotel starts functioning at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1990 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1994 or beginning on the 1st day of April, 1997 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2001 :

 Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to a hotel located at a place within the municipal jurisdiction (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee or a cantonment board or by any other name) of Calcutta, Chennai, Delhi or Mumbai, which has started or starts functioning on or after the 1st day of April, 1997 and before the 31st day of March, 2001 :

 Provided further that the said hotel is approved by the prescribed authority for the purpose of this clause in accordance with the rules made under this Act and where the said hotel is approved by the prescribed authority before the 31st day of March, 1992, shall be deemed to have been approved by the prescribed authority for the purpose of this section in relation to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1991;

(b) Thirty per cent of the profits and gains derived from the business of such hotel as is located in any place other than those mentioned in sub-clause (a) for a period of ten consecutive years beginning from the initial assessment year if such hotel has started or starts functioning at any time during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 1991 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1995 or beginning on the 1st day of April, 1997 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2001 :

Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to a hotel located at a place within the municipal jurisdiction (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee or a cantonment board or by any other name) of Calcutta, Chennai, Delhi or Mumbai, which has started or starts functioning on or after the 1st day of April, 1997 and before the 31st day of March, 2001;

(c) The deduction under clause (a) or clause (b) shall be available only if-

 (i) The business of the hotel is not formed by the splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence or by the transfer to a new business of a building previously used as a hotel or of any machinery or plant previously used for any purpose;

 (ii) The business of the hotel is owned and carried on by a company registered in India with a paid-up capital of not less than five hundred thousand rupees;

 (iii) The hotel is for the time being approved by the prescribed authority :

 Provided that any hotel approved by the prescribed authority before the 1st day of April, 1999 shall be deemed to have been approved under this sub-section.

 (8) The amount of deduction in the case of any company carrying on scientific research and development shall be hundred per cent of the profits and gains of such business for a period of five assessment years beginning from the initial assessment year if such company - (a) Is registered in India;

(b) Has the main object of scientific and industrial research and development;

 (c) Is for the time being approved by the prescribed authority at any time before the 1st day of April, 1999.

(9) The amount of deduction to an undertaking which begins commercial production or refining of mineral oil shall be hundred per cent of the profits for a period of seven consecutive assessment years including the initial assessment year :

 Provided that where the undertaking is located in North-Eastern Region, it has begun or begins commercial production of mineral oil before the 1st day of April, 1997 and where it is located in any part of India, it begins commercial production of mineral oil on or after the 1st day of April, 1997 :

Provided further that where the undertaking is engaged in refining of mineral oil, it begins refining on or after the 1st day of October, 1998.

(10) The amount of profits in case of an undertaking developing and building housing projects approved by a local authority, shall be hundred per cent of the profits derived in any previous year relevant to any assessment year from such housing project if, - (a) Such undertaking has commenced or commences development and construction of the housing project on or after the 1st day of October, 1998 and completes the same before the 31st day of March, 2001;

(b) The project is on the size of a plot of land which has a minimum area of one acre; and

(c) The residential unit has a maximum built-up area of one thousand square feet where such residential unit is situated within the cities of Delhi or Mumbai or within twenty-five kilometres from the municipal limits of these cities and one thousand and five hundred square feet at any other place.

(11) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (iii) of sub-section (2) and sub-sections (3), (4) and (5), the amount of deduction in a case of industrial undertaking deriving profit from the business of setting up and operating a cold chain facility for agricultural produce, shall be hundred per cent of the profits and gains derived from such industrial undertaking for five assessment years beginning with the initial assessment year and thereafter, twenty-five per cent (or thirty per cent where the assessee is a company) of the profits and gains derived from the operation of such facility in a manner that the total period of deduction does not exceed ten consecutive assessment years (or twelve consecutive assessment years where the assessee is a co-operative society) and subject to fulfilment of the condition that it begins to operate such facility on or after the 1st day of April, 1999 but before the 31st day of March, 2003.

(12) Where any undertaking of an Indian company which is entitled to the deduction under this section is transferred, before the expiry of the period specified in this section, to another Indian company in a scheme of amalgamation or demerger - (a) No deduction shall be admissible under this section to the amalgamating or the demerged company for the previous year in which the amalgamation or the demerger takes place; and

(b) The provisions of this section shall, as far as may be, apply to the amalgamated or the resulting company as they would have applied to the amalgamating or the demerged company if the amalgamation or demerger had not taken place.

 (13) The provisions contained in sub-section (5) and sub-sections (7) to (12) of section 80-IA shall, so far as may be, apply to the eligible business under this section.

 (14) For the purposes of this section, - (a) “Cold chain facility” means a chain of facilities for storage or transportation of agricultural produce under scientifically controlled conditions including refrigeration and other facilities necessary for the preservation of such produce;

 (b) “Hilly area” means any area located at a height of one thousand metres or more above the sea level;

(c) “Initial assessment year” - (i) In the case of an industrial undertaking or cold storage plant or ship or hotel, means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the industrial undertaking begins to manufacture or produce articles or things, or to operate its cold storage plant or plants or the cold chain facility or the ship is first brought into use or the business of the hotel starts functioning;

 (ii) In the case of a company carrying on scientific and industrial research and development, means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the company is approved by the prescribed authority for the purposes of sub-section (8);

 (iii) In the case of an undertaking engaged in the business of commercial production or refining of mineral oil referred to in sub- section (9), means the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the undertaking commences the commercial production or refining of mineral oil;

(d) “North-Eastern Region” means the region comprising the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura;

 (e) “Place of pilgrimage” means a place where any temple, mosque, gurdwara, church or other place of public worship of renown throughout any State or States is situated;

 (f) “Rural area” means any area other than - (i) An area which is comprised within the jurisdiction of a municipality (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee or by any other name) or a cantonment board and which has a population of not less than ten thousand according to the preceding census of which relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year; or

 (ii) An area within such distance not being more than fifteen kilometres from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in sub-clause (i), as the Central Government may, having regard to the stage of development of such area including the extent of, and scope for, urbanisation of such area and other relevant considerations specify in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette;

(g) “Small-scale industrial undertaking” means an industrial undertaking which is, as on the last day of the previous year, regarded as a small-scale industrial undertaking under section 11B of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (65 of 1951).

 Section 80J- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINS FROM NEWLY ESTABLISHED INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS OR SHIPS OR HOTAL BUSINESS IN CERTAIN CASES.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE (NO. 2) ACT, 1996, W.R.E.F. 1-4-1989

Section 80JJ- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFITS AND GAINGS FROM BUSINESS OF POULTRY FARMING.

 OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1997, W.E.F. 1-4-1998

DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF PROFIT AND GAINS FROM BUSINESS OF COLLECTING AND PROCESSING OF BIO-DEGRADABLE WASTE.

 Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived from the business of collecting and processing or treating of bio-degradable waster for generating power or producing bio- fertilizers, bio-pesticides or other biological agents or for producing bio-gas or, making pellets or briquettes for fuel for organic manure, there shall be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee a deduction of an amount equal to the whole of such profits and gains for a period of five consecutive assessment years beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which such business commences

Section 80JJAA- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF EMPLOYMENT OF NEW WORKMEN.

 (1) Where the gross total income of an assessee, being an Indian company, includes any profits and gains derived from any industrial undertaking engaged in the manufacture or production of article or thing, there shall, subject to the conditions specified in sub-section (2), be allowed a deduction of an amount equal to thirty per cent of additional wages paid to the new regular workmen employed by the assessee in the previous year for three assessment years including the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which such employment is provided.

(2) No deduction under sub-section (1) shall be allowed -

(a) If the industrial undertaking is formed by splitting up or reconstruction of an existing undertaking or amalgamation with another industrial undertaking;

(b) Unless the assessee furnishes alongwith the return of income the report of the accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 giving such particulars in the report as may be prescribed.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, the expressions, - (i) “Additional wages” means the wages said to the new regular workman in excess of one hundred workmen employed during the previous year :

Provided that in the case of an existing undertaking, the additional wages shall be nil if the increase in the number of regular workman employed during the year is less than ten per cent of existing number of workmen employed in such undertaking as on the last day of the preceding year;

 (ii) “Regular workman”, does not include - (a) A casual workman; or

(b) A workman employed through contract labour; or

(c) Any other workman employed for a period of less than three hundred days during the previous year;

(iii) “Workman” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (s) of section 2 of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947).

Section 80K- DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF DIVIDENDS ATTRIBUTABLE TO PROFITS AND GAINS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS OR SHIPS OR HOTEL BUSINESS.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1986, W.E.F. 1-4-1987

Section 80L- DEDUCTIONS IN RESPECT OF INTEREST ON CERTAIN SECURITIES, DIVIDENDS, ETC.

(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee, being - (a) An individual, or

 (b) A Hindu undivided family, includes any income by way of - (i) Interest on any security of the Central Government or a State Government;

(ia) Interest on National Savings Certificates (VI Issue) or National Savings Certificates (VII Issue) or National Savings Certificates (VIII Issue) issued under the Government Savings Certificates Act, 1959 (46 of 1959);

(ii) Interest on such debentures, issued by any institution or authority or any public sector company, or any co-operative society (including a co-operative land mortgage bank or a co-operative land development bank), as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

 (iia) Interest on deposits under such National Deposit Scheme 1134 as may be framed by the Central Government and notified by it in this behalf in the Official Gazette;

 (iii) Interest of deposits under any other scheme framed by the Central Government and notified by it in this behalf in the Official Gazette;

 (iiia) Interest on deposits under the Post Office (Monthly Income Account) Rules, 1987;

 (vi) Interest on deposits with a banking company to which the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), applies (including any bank or banking institution referred to in section 51 of that Act), or a co-operative society engaged in carrying on the business of banking (including a co-operative land mortgage bank or a co-operative land development bank);

(via) Interest on deposits with any such bank, not being a banking company or a co-operative society referred to in clause (vi) but being a bank established by or under any law made by Parliament, as may be approved 1141 by the Central Government for the purposes of this clause;

(vii) Interest on deposits with a financial corporation which is engaged in providing long-term finance for industrial development in India :

Provided that the corporation is for the time being approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause (viii) of sub-section (1) of section 36;

(viia) Interest on deposits with any authority constituted in India by or under any law enacted either for the purpose of dealing with and satisfying the need for housing accommodation or for the purpose of planning, development or improvement of cities, towns and villages, or for both;

(viii) Interest on deposits with a co-operative society, not being a co-operative society referred to in clause (vi), made by a member of the society;

(ix) Dividends from any co-operative society;

(x) Interest on deposits with any public company formed and registered in India with the main object of carrying on the business of providing long-term finance for construction or purchase of houses in India for residential purposes : There shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee a deduction as specified hereunder, namely :- (1) In a case where the amount of such income does not exceed in the aggregate twelve thousand rupees, the whole of such amount, and

(2) In any other case twelve thousand rupees.

 Provided that where any income referred in clause (i) clause (v) or clause (va) remains unallowed after the deduction under the foregoing provision of this section, there shall be allowed in computing the total income of the assessee, an additional deduction of an amount equal to so much of such income as has remained unallowed; so, however, that the amount of such additional deduction shall not exceed three thousand rupees.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “security” means a Government security as defined in clause (2) of section 2 of the Public Debt Act, 1944 (18 of 1944).

(3) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where the income referred to in sub-section (1) is derived from any asset held by, or on behalf of, a firm, an association of persons or a body of individuals, no deduction shall be allowed under the said sub-section in respect of such income in computing the total income of any partner of the firm or any member of the association or body.

Section 80M. DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF CERTAIN INTER-CORPORATE DIVIDENDS.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1997, W.E.F. 1-4-1998

Section 80MM. DEDUCTION IN THE CASE OF AN INDIAN COMPANY IN RESPECT OF ROYALTIES, ETC., RECEIVED FROM ANY CONCERN IN INDIA.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1983, W.E.F. 1-4-1984

Section 80N. DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF DIVIDENDS RECEIVED FROM CERTAIN FOREGIN COMPANIES.

OMITTED BY THE FINANCE ACT, 1985, W.E.F. 1-4-1986

Section 80-O. DEDUCTION IN RESPECT OF ROYALTIES, ETC., FROM CERTAIN FOREIGN ENTERPRISES.

Where the gross total income of an assessee, being an Indian company, or a person (other than a company) who is resident in India includes any income received by the assessee from the Government of a foreign State or foreign enterprise in consideration for the use outside India of any patent, invention, design or registered trade mark, and such income is received in convertible foreign exchange in India, or having been received in convertible foreign exchange outside India, or having been converted into convertible foreign exchange outside India, is brought into India, by or on behalf of the assessee in accordance with any law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange, there shall be allowed, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, a deduction of an amount equal to fifty per cent of the income so received in, or brought into, India, in computing the total income of the assessee :

 Provided that such income is received in India within a period of six months from the end of the previous year or within such further period as the competent authority may allow in this behalf.

Provided further that no deduction under this section shall be allowed unless the assessee furnishes a certificate, in the prescribed form, along with the return of income, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

 Explanation : For the purposes of this section, - (i) “Convertible foreign exchange” means foreign exchange which is for the time being treated by the Reserve Bank of India as convertible foreign exchange for the purposes of the law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange;

(ii) “Foreign enterprise” means a person who is a non-resident;

(iii) Services rendered or agreed to be rendered outside India shall include services rendered from India but shall not include services rendered in India.

(iv) “Competent authority” means the Reserve Bank of India or such other authority as is authorised under any law for the time being in force for regulating payments and dealings in foreign exchange.

Income Tax Act 1961 – 1st Page
Income Tax Act 1961 – 2nd Page
Income Tax Act 1961 – 3rd Page

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  1. [...] Income Tax Act 1961 – 1st Page Income Tax Act 1961 – 2nd Page Income Tax Act 1961 – 3rd Page [...]

  2. [...] about the amendment in Finance Bill 2013 India – with respect to Section 206-C of Income Tax Act dealing with Tax Collection at Source (TCS) on Sale of Bullion or Jewellery in [...]

  3. S MARIANTONY says:

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  4. S MARIANTONY says:

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  7. Aastha says:

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  8. […] Income Tax Act 1961 – 1st Page […]

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